Module: ActiveRecord::FinderMethods

Included in:
Relation
Defined in:
activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/finder_methods.rb

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Instance Method Details

- (Object) all(*args)

A convenience wrapper for find(:all, *args). You can pass in all the same arguments to this method as you can to find(:all).



142
143
144
# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/finder_methods.rb', line 142

def all(*args)
  args.any? ? apply_finder_options(args.first).to_a : to_a
end

- (Boolean) exists?(id = nil)

Returns true if a record exists in the table that matches the id or conditions given, or false otherwise. The argument can take five forms:

  • Integer - Finds the record with this primary key.

  • String - Finds the record with a primary key corresponding to this string (such as '5').

  • Array - Finds the record that matches these find-style conditions (such as ['color = ?', 'red']).

  • Hash - Finds the record that matches these find-style conditions (such as {:color => 'red'}).

  • No args - Returns false if the table is empty, true otherwise.

For more information about specifying conditions as a Hash or Array, see the Conditions section in the introduction to ActiveRecord::Base.

Note: You can't pass in a condition as a string (like name = 'Jamie'), since it would be sanitized and then queried against the primary key column, like id = 'name = \'Jamie\''.

Examples

Person.exists?(5)
Person.exists?('5')
Person.exists?(:name => "David")
Person.exists?(['name LIKE ?', "%#{query}%"])
Person.exists?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/finder_methods.rb', line 171

def exists?(id = nil)
  id = id.id if ActiveRecord::Base === id

  case id
  when Array, Hash
    where(id).exists?
  else
    relation = select(primary_key).limit(1)
    relation = relation.where(primary_key.eq(id)) if id
    relation.first ? true : false
  end
end

- (Object) find(*args)

Find operates with four different retrieval approaches:

  • Find by id - This can either be a specific id (1), a list of ids (1, 5, 6), or an array of ids ([5, 6, 10]). If no record can be found for all of the listed ids, then RecordNotFound will be raised.

  • Find first - This will return the first record matched by the options used. These options can either be specific conditions or merely an order. If no record can be matched, nil is returned. Use Model.find(:first, *args) or its shortcut Model.first(*args).

  • Find last - This will return the last record matched by the options used. These options can either be specific conditions or merely an order. If no record can be matched, nil is returned. Use Model.find(:last, *args) or its shortcut Model.last(*args).

  • Find all - This will return all the records matched by the options used. If no records are found, an empty array is returned. Use Model.find(:all, *args) or its shortcut Model.all(*args).

All approaches accept an options hash as their last parameter.

Parameters

  • :conditions - An SQL fragment like “administrator = 1”, [ "user_name = ?", username ], or ["user_name = :user_name", { :user_name => user_name }]. See conditions in the intro.

  • :order - An SQL fragment like “created_at DESC, name”.

  • :group - An attribute name by which the result should be grouped. Uses the GROUP BY SQL-clause.

  • :having - Combined with :group this can be used to filter the records that a GROUP BY returns. Uses the HAVING SQL-clause.

  • :limit - An integer determining the limit on the number of rows that should be returned.

  • :offset - An integer determining the offset from where the rows should be fetched. So at 5, it would skip rows 0 through 4.

  • :joins - Either an SQL fragment for additional joins like “LEFT JOIN comments ON comments.post_id = id” (rarely needed), named associations in the same form used for the :include option, which will perform an INNER JOIN on the associated table(s), or an array containing a mixture of both strings and named associations. If the value is a string, then the records will be returned read-only since they will have attributes that do not correspond to the table's columns. Pass :readonly => false to override.

  • :include - Names associations that should be loaded alongside. The symbols named refer to already defined associations. See eager loading under Associations.

  • :select - By default, this is “*” as in “SELECT * FROM”, but can be changed if you, for example, want to do a join but not include the joined columns. Takes a string with the SELECT SQL fragment (e.g. “id, name”).

  • :from - By default, this is the table name of the class, but can be changed to an alternate table name (or even the name of a database view).

  • :readonly - Mark the returned records read-only so they cannot be saved or updated.

  • :lock - An SQL fragment like “FOR UPDATE” or “LOCK IN SHARE MODE”. :lock => true gives connection's default exclusive lock, usually “FOR UPDATE”.

Examples

# find by id
Person.find(1)       # returns the object for ID = 1
Person.find(1, 2, 6) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (1, 2, 6)
Person.find([7, 17]) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (7, 17)
Person.find([1])     # returns an array for the object with ID = 1
Person.find(1, :conditions => "administrator = 1", :order => "created_on DESC")

Note that returned records may not be in the same order as the ids you provide since database rows are unordered. Give an explicit :order to ensure the results are sorted.

Examples

# find first
Person.find(:first) # returns the first object fetched by SELECT * FROM people
Person.find(:first, :conditions => [ "user_name = ?", user_name])
Person.find(:first, :conditions => [ "user_name = :u", { :u => user_name }])
Person.find(:first, :order => "created_on DESC", :offset => 5)

# find last
Person.find(:last) # returns the last object fetched by SELECT * FROM people
Person.find(:last, :conditions => [ "user_name = ?", user_name])
Person.find(:last, :order => "created_on DESC", :offset => 5)

# find all
Person.find(:all) # returns an array of objects for all the rows fetched by SELECT * FROM people
Person.find(:all, :conditions => [ "category IN (?)", categories], :limit => 50)
Person.find(:all, :conditions => { :friends => ["Bob", "Steve", "Fred"] }
Person.find(:all, :offset => 10, :limit => 10)
Person.find(:all, :include => [ :account, :friends ])
Person.find(:all, :group => "category")

Example for find with a lock: Imagine two concurrent transactions: each will read person.visits == 2, add 1 to it, and save, resulting in two saves of person.visits = 3. By locking the row, the second transaction has to wait until the first is finished; we get the expected person.visits == 4.

Person.transaction do
  person = Person.find(1, :lock => true)
  person.visits += 1
  person.save!
end


95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/finder_methods.rb', line 95

def find(*args)
  return to_a.find { |*block_args| yield(*block_args) } if block_given?

  options = args.extract_options!

  if options.present?
    apply_finder_options(options).find(*args)
  else
    case args.first
    when :first, :last, :all
      send(args.first)
    else
      find_with_ids(*args)
    end
  end
end

- (Object) first(*args)

A convenience wrapper for find(:first, *args). You can pass in all the same arguments to this method as you can to find(:first).



114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/finder_methods.rb', line 114

def first(*args)
  if args.any?
    if args.first.kind_of?(Integer) || (loaded? && !args.first.kind_of?(Hash))
      to_a.first(*args)
    else
      apply_finder_options(args.first).first
    end
  else
    find_first
  end
end

- (Object) last(*args)

A convenience wrapper for find(:last, *args). You can pass in all the same arguments to this method as you can to find(:last).



128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/finder_methods.rb', line 128

def last(*args)
  if args.any?
    if args.first.kind_of?(Integer) || (loaded? && !args.first.kind_of?(Hash))
      to_a.last(*args)
    else
      apply_finder_options(args.first).last
    end
  else
    find_last
  end
end