Class: ActiveRecord::Migration

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb,
activerecord/lib/active_record/migration/command_recorder.rb

Overview

Active Record Migrations

Migrations can manage the evolution of a schema used by several physical databases. It's a solution to the common problem of adding a field to make a new feature work in your local database, but being unsure of how to push that change to other developers and to the production server. With migrations, you can describe the transformations in self-contained classes that can be checked into version control systems and executed against another database that might be one, two, or five versions behind.

Example of a simple migration:

class AddSsl < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    add_column :accounts, :ssl_enabled, :boolean, :default => 1
  end

  def down
    remove_column :accounts, :ssl_enabled
  end
end

This migration will add a boolean flag to the accounts table and remove it if you're backing out of the migration. It shows how all migrations have two methods up and down that describes the transformations required to implement or remove the migration. These methods can consist of both the migration specific methods like add_column and remove_column, but may also contain regular Ruby code for generating data needed for the transformations.

Example of a more complex migration that also needs to initialize data:

class AddSystemSettings < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    create_table :system_settings do |t|
      t.string  :name
      t.string  :label
      t.text  :value
      t.string  :type
      t.integer  :position
    end

    SystemSetting.create  :name => "notice",
                          :label => "Use notice?",
                          :value => 1
  end

  def down
    drop_table :system_settings
  end
end

This migration first adds the system_settings table, then creates the very first row in it using the Active Record model that relies on the table. It also uses the more advanced create_table syntax where you can specify a complete table schema in one block call.

Available transformations

  • create_table(name, options) Creates a table called name and makes the table object available to a block that can then add columns to it, following the same format as add_column. See example above. The options hash is for fragments like ???DEFAULT CHARSET=UTF-8??? that are appended to the create table definition.

  • drop_table(name): Drops the table called name.

  • rename_table(old_name, new_name): Renames the table called old_name to new_name.

  • add_column(table_name, column_name, type, options): Adds a new column to the table called table_name named column_name specified to be one of the following types: :string, :text, :integer, :float, :decimal, :datetime, :timestamp, :time, :date, :binary, :boolean. A default value can be specified by passing an options hash like { :default => 11 }. Other options include :limit and :null (e.g. { :limit => 50, :null => false }) ??? see ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::TableDefinition#column for details.

  • rename_column(table_name, column_name, new_column_name): Renames a column but keeps the type and content.

  • change_column(table_name, column_name, type, options): Changes the column to a different type using the same parameters as add_column.

  • remove_column(table_name, column_name): Removes the column named column_name from the table called table_name.

  • add_index(table_name, column_names, options): Adds a new index with the name of the column. Other options include :name and :unique (e.g. { :name => "users_name_index", :unique => true }).

  • remove_index(table_name, :column => column_name): Removes the index specified by column_name.

  • remove_index(table_name, :name => index_name): Removes the index specified by index_name.

Irreversible transformations

Some transformations are destructive in a manner that cannot be reversed. Migrations of that kind should raise an ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration exception in their down method.

Running migrations from within Rails

The Rails package has several tools to help create and apply migrations.

To generate a new migration, you can use

rails generate migration MyNewMigration

where MyNewMigration is the name of your migration. The generator will create an empty migration file timestamp_my_new_migration.rb in the db/migrate/ directory where timestamp is the UTC formatted date and time that the migration was generated.

You may then edit the up and down methods of MyNewMigration.

There is a special syntactic shortcut to generate migrations that add fields to a table.

rails generate migration add_fieldname_to_tablename fieldname:string

This will generate the file timestamp_add_fieldname_to_tablename, which will look like this:

class AddFieldnameToTablename < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    add_column :tablenames, :fieldname, :string
  end

  def down
    remove_column :tablenames, :fieldname
  end
end

To run migrations against the currently configured database, use rake db:migrate. This will update the database by running all of the pending migrations, creating the schema_migrations table (see "About the schema_migrations table" section below) if missing. It will also invoke the db:schema:dump task, which will update your db/schema.rb file to match the structure of your database.

To roll the database back to a previous migration version, use rake db:migrate VERSION=X where X is the version to which you wish to downgrade. If any of the migrations throw an ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration exception, that step will fail and you'll have some manual work to do.

Database support

Migrations are currently supported in MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, SQL Server, Sybase, and Oracle (all supported databases except DB2).

More examples

Not all migrations change the schema. Some just fix the data:

class RemoveEmptyTags < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    Tag.find(:all).each { |tag| tag.destroy if tag.pages.empty? }
  end

  def down
    # not much we can do to restore deleted data
    raise ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration, "Can't recover the deleted tags"
  end
end

Others remove columns when they migrate up instead of down:

class RemoveUnnecessaryItemAttributes < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    remove_column :items, :incomplete_items_count
    remove_column :items, :completed_items_count
  end

  def down
    add_column :items, :incomplete_items_count
    add_column :items, :completed_items_count
  end
end

And sometimes you need to do something in SQL not abstracted directly by migrations:

class MakeJoinUnique < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    execute "ALTER TABLE `pages_linked_pages` ADD UNIQUE `page_id_linked_page_id` (`page_id`,`linked_page_id`)"
  end

  def down
    execute "ALTER TABLE `pages_linked_pages` DROP INDEX `page_id_linked_page_id`"
  end
end

Using a model after changing its table

Sometimes you'll want to add a column in a migration and populate it immediately after. In that case, you'll need to make a call to Base#reset_column_information in order to ensure that the model has the latest column data from after the new column was added. Example:

class AddPeopleSalary < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    add_column :people, :salary, :integer
    Person.reset_column_information
    Person.find(:all).each do |p|
      p.update_attribute :salary, SalaryCalculator.compute(p)
    end
  end
end

Controlling verbosity

By default, migrations will describe the actions they are taking, writing them to the console as they happen, along with benchmarks describing how long each step took.

You can quiet them down by setting ActiveRecord::Migration.verbose = false.

You can also insert your own messages and benchmarks by using the say_with_time method:

def up
  ...
  say_with_time "Updating salaries..." do
    Person.find(:all).each do |p|
      p.update_attribute :salary, SalaryCalculator.compute(p)
    end
  end
  ...
end

The phrase "Updating salaries..." would then be printed, along with the benchmark for the block when the block completes.

About the schema_migrations table

Rails versions 2.0 and prior used to create a table called schema_info when using migrations. This table contained the version of the schema as of the last applied migration.

Starting with Rails 2.1, the schema_info table is (automatically) replaced by the schema_migrations table, which contains the version numbers of all the migrations applied.

As a result, it is now possible to add migration files that are numbered lower than the current schema version: when migrating up, those never-applied "interleaved" migrations will be automatically applied, and when migrating down, never-applied "interleaved" migrations will be skipped.

Timestamped Migrations

By default, Rails generates migrations that look like:

20080717013526_your_migration_name.rb

The prefix is a generation timestamp (in UTC).

If you'd prefer to use numeric prefixes, you can turn timestamped migrations off by setting:

config.active_record.timestamped_migrations = false

In application.rb.

Reversible Migrations

Starting with Rails 3.1, you will be able to define reversible migrations. Reversible migrations are migrations that know how to go down for you. You simply supply the up logic, and the Migration system will figure out how to execute the down commands for you.

To define a reversible migration, define the change method in your migration like this:

class TenderloveMigration < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def change
    create_table(:horses) do
      t.column :content, :text
      t.column :remind_at, :datetime
    end
  end
end

This migration will create the horses table for you on the way up, and automatically figure out how to drop the table on the way down.

Some commands like remove_column cannot be reversed. If you care to define how to move up and down in these cases, you should define the up and down methods as before.

If a command cannot be reversed, an ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration exception will be raised when the migration is moving down.

For a list of commands that are reversible, please see ActiveRecord::Migration::CommandRecorder.

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: CommandRecorder

Class Attribute Summary (collapse)

Instance Attribute Summary (collapse)

Class Method Summary (collapse)

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Constructor Details

- (Migration) initialize

Returns a new instance of Migration



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 343

def initialize
  @name       = self.class.name
  @version    = nil
  @connection = nil
end

Dynamic Method Handling

This class handles dynamic methods through the method_missing method

- (Object) method_missing(method, *arguments, &block)



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 439

def method_missing(method, *arguments, &block)
  arg_list = arguments.map{ |a| a.inspect } * ', '

  say_with_time "#{method}(#{arg_list})" do
    unless arguments.empty? || method == :execute
      arguments[0] = Migrator.proper_table_name(arguments.first)
    end
    return super unless connection.respond_to?(method)
    connection.send(method, *arguments, &block)
  end
end

Class Attribute Details

+ (Object) delegate

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 328

def delegate
  @delegate
end

Instance Attribute Details

- (Object) name

Returns the value of attribute name



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 341

def name
  @name
end

- (Object) version

Returns the value of attribute version



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 341

def version
  @version
end

Class Method Details

+ (Object) method_missing(name, *args, &block)

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 331

def self.method_missing(name, *args, &block) # :nodoc:
  (delegate || superclass.delegate).send(name, *args, &block)
end

+ (Object) migrate(direction)



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 335

def self.migrate(direction)
  new.migrate direction
end

Instance Method Details

- (Object) announce(message)



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 409

def announce(message)
  text = "#{version} #{name}: #{message}"
  length = [0, 75 - text.length].max
  write "== %s %s" % [text, "=" * length]
end

- (Object) connection



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 435

def connection
  @connection || ActiveRecord::Base.connection
end

- (Object) copy(destination, sources, options = {})



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 451

def copy(destination, sources, options = {})
  copied = []

  FileUtils.mkdir_p(destination) unless File.exists?(destination)

  destination_migrations = ActiveRecord::Migrator.migrations(destination)
  last = destination_migrations.last
  sources.each do |name, path|
    source_migrations = ActiveRecord::Migrator.migrations(path)

    source_migrations.each do |migration|
      source = File.read(migration.filename)
      source = "# This migration comes from #{name} (originally #{migration.version})\n#{source}"

      if duplicate = destination_migrations.detect { |m| m.name == migration.name }
        options[:on_skip].call(name, migration) if File.read(duplicate.filename) != source && options[:on_skip]
        next
      end

      migration.version = next_migration_number(last ? last.version + 1 : 0).to_i
      new_path = File.join(destination, "#{migration.version}_#{migration.name.underscore}.rb")
      old_path, migration.filename = migration.filename, new_path
      last = migration

      FileUtils.cp(old_path, migration.filename)
      copied << migration
      options[:on_copy].call(name, migration, old_path) if options[:on_copy]
      destination_migrations << migration
    end
  end

  copied
end

- (Object) down



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 359

def down
  self.class.delegate = self
  return unless self.class.respond_to?(:down)
  self.class.down
end

- (Object) migrate(direction)

Execute this migration in the named direction



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 366

def migrate(direction)
  return unless respond_to?(direction)

  case direction
  when :up   then announce "migrating"
  when :down then announce "reverting"
  end

  time   = nil
  ActiveRecord::Base.connection_pool.with_connection do |conn|
    @connection = conn
    if respond_to?(:change)
      if direction == :down
        recorder = CommandRecorder.new(@connection)
        suppress_messages do
          @connection = recorder
          change
        end
        @connection = conn
        time = Benchmark.measure {
          recorder.inverse.each do |cmd, args|
            send(cmd, *args)
          end
        }
      else
        time = Benchmark.measure { change }
      end
    else
      time = Benchmark.measure { send(direction) }
    end
    @connection = nil
  end

  case direction
  when :up   then announce "migrated (%.4fs)" % time.real; write
  when :down then announce "reverted (%.4fs)" % time.real; write
  end
end

- (Object) next_migration_number(number)



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 485

def next_migration_number(number)
  if ActiveRecord::Base.timestamped_migrations
    [Time.now.utc.strftime("%Y%m%d%H%M%S"), "%.14d" % number].max
  else
    "%.3d" % number
  end
end

- (Object) say(message, subitem = false)



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 415

def say(message, subitem=false)
  write "#{subitem ? "   ->" : "--"} #{message}"
end

- (Object) say_with_time(message)



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 419

def say_with_time(message)
  say(message)
  result = nil
  time = Benchmark.measure { result = yield }
  say "%.4fs" % time.real, :subitem
  say("#{result} rows", :subitem) if result.is_a?(Integer)
  result
end

- (Object) suppress_messages



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 428

def suppress_messages
  save, self.verbose = verbose, false
  yield
ensure
  self.verbose = save
end

- (Object) up



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 353

def up
  self.class.delegate = self
  return unless self.class.respond_to?(:up)
  self.class.up
end

- (Object) write(text = "")



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 405

def write(text="")
  puts(text) if verbose
end