Class: Class

Inherits:
Object show all
Defined in:
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/subclasses.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/duplicable.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/delegating_attributes.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb

Overview

It is recommended to use class_attribute over methods defined in this file. Please refer to documentation for class_attribute for more information. Officially it is not deprecated but class_attribute is faster.

Allows attributes to be shared within an inheritance hierarchy. Each descendant gets a copy of their parents' attributes, instead of just a pointer to the same. This means that the child can add elements to, for example, an array without those additions being shared with either their parent, siblings, or children. This is unlike the regular class-level attributes that are shared across the entire hierarchy.

The copies of inheritable parent attributes are added to subclasses when they are created, via the inherited hook.

class Person
  class_inheritable_accessor :hair_colors
end

Person.hair_colors = [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]
Person.hair_colors     # => [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]
Person.new.hair_colors # => [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]

To opt out of the instance writer method, pass :instance_writer => false. To opt out of the instance reader method, pass :instance_reader => false.

class Person
  class_inheritable_accessor :hair_colors :instance_writer => false, :instance_reader => false
end

Person.new.hair_colors = [:brown]  # => NoMethodError
Person.new.hair_colors             # => NoMethodError

Constant Summary

EMPTY_INHERITABLE_ATTRIBUTES =

Prevent this constant from being created multiple times

{}.freeze

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Instance Method Details

- (Object) cattr_accessor(*syms, &blk)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb', line 75

def cattr_accessor(*syms, &blk)
  cattr_reader(*syms)
  cattr_writer(*syms, &blk)
end

- (Object) cattr_reader(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb', line 28

def cattr_reader(*syms)
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      unless defined? @@#{sym}
        @@#{sym} = nil
      end

      def self.#{sym}
        @@#{sym}
      end
    EOS

    unless options[:instance_reader] == false
      class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
        def #{sym}
          @@#{sym}
        end
      EOS
    end
  end
end

- (Object) cattr_writer(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb', line 51

def cattr_writer(*syms)
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      unless defined? @@#{sym}
        @@#{sym} = nil
      end

      def self.#{sym}=(obj)
        @@#{sym} = obj
      end
    EOS

    unless options[:instance_writer] == false
      class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
        def #{sym}=(obj)
          @@#{sym} = obj
        end
      EOS
    end
    self.send("#{sym}=", yield) if block_given?
  end
end

- (Object) class_attribute(*attrs)

Declare a class-level attribute whose value is inheritable by subclasses. Subclasses can change their own value and it will not impact parent class.

class Base
  class_attribute :setting
end

class Subclass < Base
end

Base.setting = true
Subclass.setting            # => true
Subclass.setting = false
Subclass.setting            # => false
Base.setting                # => true

In the above case as long as Subclass does not assign a value to setting by performing Subclass.setting = something , Subclass.setting would read value assigned to parent class. Once Subclass assigns a value then the value assigned by Subclass would be returned.

This matches normal Ruby method inheritance: think of writing an attribute on a subclass as overriding the reader method. However, you need to be aware when using class_attribute with mutable structures as Array or Hash. In such cases, you don't want to do changes in places but use setters:

Base.setting = []
Base.setting                # => []
Subclass.setting            # => []

# Appending in child changes both parent and child because it is the same object:
Subclass.setting << :foo
Base.setting               # => [:foo]
Subclass.setting           # => [:foo]

# Use setters to not propagate changes:
Base.setting = []
Subclass.setting += [:foo]
Base.setting               # => []
Subclass.setting           # => [:foo]

For convenience, a query method is defined as well:

Subclass.setting?       # => false

Instances may overwrite the class value in the same way:

Base.setting = true
object = Base.new
object.setting          # => true
object.setting = false
object.setting          # => false
Base.setting            # => true

To opt out of the instance reader method, pass :instance_reader => false.

object.setting          # => NoMethodError
object.setting?         # => NoMethodError

To opt out of the instance writer method, pass :instance_writer => false.

object.setting = false  # => NoMethodError


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute.rb', line 68

def class_attribute(*attrs)
  options = attrs.extract_options!
  instance_reader = options.fetch(:instance_reader, true)
  instance_writer = options.fetch(:instance_writer, true)

  attrs.each do |name|
    class_eval <<-RUBY, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1
      def self.#{name}() nil end
      def self.#{name}?() !!#{name} end

      def self.#{name}=(val)
        singleton_class.class_eval do
          remove_possible_method(:#{name})
          define_method(:#{name}) { val }
        end

        if singleton_class?
          class_eval do
            remove_possible_method(:#{name})
            def #{name}
              defined?(@#{name}) ? @#{name} : singleton_class.#{name}
            end
          end
        end
        val
      end

      if instance_reader
        remove_possible_method :#{name}
        def #{name}
          defined?(@#{name}) ? @#{name} : self.class.#{name}
        end

        def #{name}?
          !!#{name}
        end
      end
    RUBY

    attr_writer name if instance_writer
  end
end

- (Object) class_inheritable_accessor(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 113

def class_inheritable_accessor(*syms)
  class_inheritable_reader(*syms)
  class_inheritable_writer(*syms)
end

- (Object) class_inheritable_array(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 118

def class_inheritable_array(*syms)
  class_inheritable_reader(*syms)
  class_inheritable_array_writer(*syms)
end

- (Object) class_inheritable_array_writer(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 77

def class_inheritable_array_writer(*syms)
  ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn ClassInheritableAttributes::DEPRECATION_WARNING_MESSAGE
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      def self.#{sym}=(obj)                          # def self.levels=(obj)
        write_inheritable_array(:#{sym}, obj)        #   write_inheritable_array(:levels, obj)
      end                                            # end
                                                     #
      #{"                                            #
      def #{sym}=(obj)                               # def levels=(obj)
        self.class.#{sym} = obj                      #   self.class.levels = obj
      end                                            # end
      " unless options[:instance_writer] == false }  # # the writer above is generated unless options[:instance_writer] == false
    EOS
  end
end

- (Object) class_inheritable_hash(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 123

def class_inheritable_hash(*syms)
  class_inheritable_reader(*syms)
  class_inheritable_hash_writer(*syms)
end

- (Object) class_inheritable_hash_writer(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 95

def class_inheritable_hash_writer(*syms)
  ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn ClassInheritableAttributes::DEPRECATION_WARNING_MESSAGE
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      def self.#{sym}=(obj)                          # def self.nicknames=(obj)
        write_inheritable_hash(:#{sym}, obj)         #   write_inheritable_hash(:nicknames, obj)
      end                                            # end
                                                     #
      #{"                                            #
      def #{sym}=(obj)                               # def nicknames=(obj)
        self.class.#{sym} = obj                      #   self.class.nicknames = obj
      end                                            # end
      " unless options[:instance_writer] == false }  # # the writer above is generated unless options[:instance_writer] == false
    EOS
  end
end

- (Object) class_inheritable_reader(*syms)

:nodoc:



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 40

def class_inheritable_reader(*syms)
  ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn ClassInheritableAttributes::DEPRECATION_WARNING_MESSAGE
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    next if sym.is_a?(Hash)
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      def self.#{sym}                                # def self.after_add
        read_inheritable_attribute(:#{sym})          #   read_inheritable_attribute(:after_add)
      end                                            # end
                                                     #
      #{"                                            #
      def #{sym}                                     # def after_add
        self.class.#{sym}                            #   self.class.after_add
      end                                            # end
      " unless options[:instance_reader] == false }  # # the reader above is generated unless options[:instance_reader] == false
    EOS
  end
end

- (Object) class_inheritable_writer(*syms)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 59

def class_inheritable_writer(*syms)
  ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn ClassInheritableAttributes::DEPRECATION_WARNING_MESSAGE
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      def self.#{sym}=(obj)                          # def self.color=(obj)
        write_inheritable_attribute(:#{sym}, obj)    #   write_inheritable_attribute(:color, obj)
      end                                            # end
                                                     #
      #{"                                            #
      def #{sym}=(obj)                               # def color=(obj)
        self.class.#{sym} = obj                      #   self.class.color = obj
      end                                            # end
      " unless options[:instance_writer] == false }  # # the writer above is generated unless options[:instance_writer] == false
    EOS
  end
end

- (Boolean) duplicable?

Classes are not duplicable:

c = Class.new # => #<Class:0x10328fd80>
c.dup         # => #<Class:0x10328fd80>

Note dup returned the same class object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/duplicable.rb', line 91

def duplicable?
  false
end

- (Object) inheritable_attributes



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 128

def inheritable_attributes
  @inheritable_attributes ||= EMPTY_INHERITABLE_ATTRIBUTES
end

- (Object) read_inheritable_attribute(key)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 149

def read_inheritable_attribute(key)
  inheritable_attributes[key]
end

- (Object) reset_inheritable_attributes



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 153

def reset_inheritable_attributes
  ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn ClassInheritableAttributes::DEPRECATION_WARNING_MESSAGE
  @inheritable_attributes = EMPTY_INHERITABLE_ATTRIBUTES
end

- (Object) subclasses

Returns an array with the direct children of self.

Integer.subclasses # => [Bignum, Fixnum]


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/subclasses.rb', line 29

def subclasses
  subclasses, chain = [], descendants
  chain.each do |k|
    subclasses << k unless chain.any? { |c| c > k }
  end
  subclasses
end

- (Object) superclass_delegating_accessor(name, options = {})



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/delegating_attributes.rb', line 7

def superclass_delegating_accessor(name, options = {})
  # Create private _name and _name= methods that can still be used if the public
  # methods are overridden. This allows
  _superclass_delegating_accessor("_#{name}")

  # Generate the public methods name, name=, and name?
  # These methods dispatch to the private _name, and _name= methods, making them
  # overridable
  singleton_class.send(:define_method, name) { send("_#{name}") }
  singleton_class.send(:define_method, "#{name}?") { !!send("_#{name}") }
  singleton_class.send(:define_method, "#{name}=") { |value| send("_#{name}=", value) }

  # If an instance_reader is needed, generate methods for name and name= on the
  # class itself, so instances will be able to see them
  define_method(name) { send("_#{name}") } if options[:instance_reader] != false
  define_method("#{name}?") { !!send("#{name}") } if options[:instance_reader] != false
end

- (Object) write_inheritable_array(key, elements)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 139

def write_inheritable_array(key, elements)
  write_inheritable_attribute(key, []) if read_inheritable_attribute(key).nil?
  write_inheritable_attribute(key, read_inheritable_attribute(key) + elements)
end

- (Object) write_inheritable_attribute(key, value)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 132

def write_inheritable_attribute(key, value)
  if inheritable_attributes.equal?(EMPTY_INHERITABLE_ATTRIBUTES)
    @inheritable_attributes = {}
  end
  inheritable_attributes[key] = value
end

- (Object) write_inheritable_hash(key, hash)



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/inheritable_attributes.rb', line 144

def write_inheritable_hash(key, hash)
  write_inheritable_attribute(key, {}) if read_inheritable_attribute(key).nil?
  write_inheritable_attribute(key, read_inheritable_attribute(key).merge(hash))
end