Class: Net::HTTP::Persistent

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb

Overview

Persistent connections for Net::HTTP

Net::HTTP::Persistent maintains persistent connections across all the servers you wish to talk to. For each host:port you communicate with a single persistent connection is created.

Multiple Net::HTTP::Persistent objects will share the same set of connections.

For each thread you start a new connection will be created. A Net::HTTP::Persistent connection will not be shared across threads.

You can shut down the HTTP connections when done by calling #shutdown. You should name your Net::HTTP::Persistent object if you intend to call this method.

Example:

require 'net/http/persistent'

uri = URI 'http://example.com/awesome/web/service'

http = Net::HTTP::Persistent.new 'my_app_name'

# perform a GET
response = http.request uri

# or

get = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri.request_uri
response = http.request get

# create a POST
post_uri = uri + 'create'
post = Net::HTTP::Post.new post_uri.path
post.set_form_data 'some' => 'cool data'

# perform the POST, the URI is always required
response http.request post_uri, post

Note that for GET, HEAD and other requests that do not have a body you want to use URI#request_uri not URI#path. The request_uri contains the query params which are sent in the body for other requests.

SSL

SSL connections are automatically created depending upon the scheme of the URI. SSL connections are automatically verified against the default certificate store for your computer. You can override this by changing verify_mode or by specifying an alternate cert_store.

Here are the SSL settings, see the individual methods for documentation:

#certificate

This client's certificate

#ca_file

The certificate-authority

#cert_store

An SSL certificate store

#private_key

The client's SSL private key

#reuse_ssl_sessions

Reuse a previously opened SSL session for a new connection

#ssl_version

Which specific SSL version to use

#verify_callback

For server certificate verification

#verify_mode

How connections should be verified

Proxies

A proxy can be set through #proxy= or at initialization time by providing a second argument to ::new. The proxy may be the URI of the proxy server or :ENV which will consult environment variables.

See #proxy= and #proxy_from_env for details.

Headers

Headers may be specified for use in every request. #headers are appended to any headers on the request. #override_headers replace existing headers on the request.

The difference between the two can be seen in setting the User-Agent. Using http.headers['User-Agent'] = 'MyUserAgent' will send “Ruby, MyUserAgent” while http.override_headers['User-Agent'] = 'MyUserAgent' will send “MyUserAgent”.

Tuning

Segregation

By providing an application name to ::new you can separate your connections from the connections of other applications.

Idle Timeout

If a connection hasn't been used for this number of seconds it will automatically be reset upon the next use to avoid attempting to send to a closed connection. The default value is 5 seconds. nil means no timeout. Set through #idle_timeout.

Reducing this value may help avoid the “too many connection resets” error when sending non-idempotent requests while increasing this value will cause fewer round-trips.

Read Timeout

The amount of time allowed between reading two chunks from the socket. Set through #read_timeout

Max Requests

The number of requests that should be made before opening a new connection. Typically many keep-alive capable servers tune this to 100 or less, so the 101st request will fail with ECONNRESET. If unset (default), this value has no effect, if set, connections will be reset on the request after max_requests.

Open Timeout

The amount of time to wait for a connection to be opened. Set through #open_timeout.

Socket Options

Socket options may be set on newly-created connections. See #socket_options for details.

Non-Idempotent Requests

By default non-idempotent requests will not be retried per RFC 2616. By setting retry_change_requests to true requests will automatically be retried once.

Only do this when you know that retrying a POST or other non-idempotent request is safe for your application and will not create duplicate resources.

The recommended way to handle non-idempotent requests is the following:

require 'net/http/persistent'

uri = URI 'http://example.com/awesome/web/service'
post_uri = uri + 'create'

http = Net::HTTP::Persistent.new 'my_app_name'

post = Net::HTTP::Post.new post_uri.path
# ... fill in POST request

begin
  response = http.request post_uri, post
rescue Net::HTTP::Persistent::Error

  # POST failed, make a new request to verify the server did not process
  # the request
  exists_uri = uri + '...'
  response = http.get exists_uri

  # Retry if it failed
  retry if response.code == '404'
end

The method of determining if the resource was created or not is unique to the particular service you are using. Of course, you will want to add protection from infinite looping.

Connection Termination

If you are done using the Net::HTTP::Persistent instance you may shut down all the connections in the current thread with #shutdown. This is not recommended for normal use, it should only be used when it will be several minutes before you make another HTTP request.

If you are using multiple threads, call #shutdown in each thread when the thread is done making requests. If you don't call shutdown, that's OK. Ruby will automatically garbage collect and shutdown your HTTP connections when the thread terminates.

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: Error

Constant Summary

EPOCH =

The beginning of Time

Time.at 0
HAVE_OPENSSL =

Is OpenSSL available? This test works with autoload

defined? OpenSSL::SSL # :nodoc:
VERSION =

The version of Net::HTTP::Persistent you are using

'2.9.3'
RETRIED_EXCEPTIONS =

Exceptions rescued for automatic retry on ruby 2.0.0. This overlaps with the exception list for ruby 1.x.

[ # :nodoc:
  (Net::ReadTimeout if Net.const_defined? :ReadTimeout),
  IOError,
  EOFError,
  Errno::ECONNRESET,
  Errno::ECONNABORTED,
  Errno::EPIPE,
  (OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError if HAVE_OPENSSL),
  Timeout::Error,
].compact

Instance Attribute Summary (collapse)

Class Method Summary (collapse)

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Constructor Details

- (Persistent) initialize(name = nil, proxy = nil)

Creates a new Net::HTTP::Persistent.

Set name to keep your connections apart from everybody else's. Not required currently, but highly recommended. Your library name should be good enough. This parameter will be required in a future version.

proxy may be set to a URI::HTTP or :ENV to pick up proxy options from the environment. See proxy_from_env for details.

In order to use a URI for the proxy you may need to do some extra work beyond URI parsing if the proxy requires a password:

proxy = URI 'http://proxy.example'
proxy.user     = 'AzureDiamond'
proxy.password = 'hunter2'


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 482

def initialize name = nil, proxy = nil
  @name = name

  @debug_output     = nil
  @proxy_uri        = nil
  @no_proxy         = []
  @headers          = {}
  @override_headers = {}
  @http_versions    = {}
  @keep_alive       = 30
  @open_timeout     = nil
  @read_timeout     = nil
  @idle_timeout     = 5
  @max_requests     = nil
  @socket_options   = []

  @socket_options << [Socket::IPPROTO_TCP, Socket::TCP_NODELAY, 1] if
    Socket.const_defined? :TCP_NODELAY

  key = ['net_http_persistent', name].compact
  @generation_key     = [key, 'generations'    ].join('_').intern
  @ssl_generation_key = [key, 'ssl_generations'].join('_').intern
  @request_key        = [key, 'requests'       ].join('_').intern
  @timeout_key        = [key, 'timeouts'       ].join('_').intern

  @certificate        = nil
  @ca_file            = nil
  @private_key        = nil
  @ssl_version        = nil
  @verify_callback    = nil
  @verify_mode        = nil
  @cert_store         = nil

  @generation         = 0 # incremented when proxy URI changes
  @ssl_generation     = 0 # incremented when SSL session variables change

  if HAVE_OPENSSL then
    @verify_mode        = OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER
    @reuse_ssl_sessions = OpenSSL::SSL.const_defined? :Session
  end

  @retry_change_requests = false

  @ruby_1 = RUBY_VERSION < '2'
  @retried_on_ruby_2 = !@ruby_1

  self.proxy = proxy if proxy
end

Instance Attribute Details

- (Object) ca_file

An SSL certificate authority. Setting this will set verify_mode to VERIFY_PEER.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 291

def ca_file
  @ca_file
end

- (Object) cert_store

An SSL certificate store. Setting this will override the default certificate store. See verify_mode for more information.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 297

def cert_store
  @cert_store
end

- (Object) certificate Also known as: cert

This client's OpenSSL::X509::Certificate



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 282

def certificate
  @certificate
end

- (Object) debug_output

Sends debug_output to this IO via Net::HTTP#set_debug_output.

Never use this method in production code, it causes a serious security hole.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 305

def debug_output
  @debug_output
end

- (Object) generation (readonly)

Current connection generation



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 310

def generation
  @generation
end

- (Object) generation_key (readonly)

Where this instance's connections live in the thread local variables



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 315

def generation_key
  @generation_key
end

- (Object) headers (readonly)

Headers that are added to every request using Net::HTTP#add_field



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 320

def headers
  @headers
end

- (Object) http_versions (readonly)

Maps host:port to an HTTP version. This allows us to enable version specific features.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 326

def http_versions
  @http_versions
end

- (Object) idle_timeout

Maximum time an unused connection can remain idle before being automatically closed.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 332

def idle_timeout
  @idle_timeout
end

- (Object) keep_alive

The value sent in the Keep-Alive header. Defaults to 30. Not needed for HTTP/1.1 servers.

This may not work correctly for HTTP/1.0 servers

This method may be removed in a future version as RFC 2616 does not require this header.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 349

def keep_alive
  @keep_alive
end

- (Object) max_requests

Maximum number of requests on a connection before it is considered expired and automatically closed.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 338

def max_requests
  @max_requests
end

- (Object) name (readonly)

A name for this connection. Allows you to keep your connections apart from everybody else's.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 355

def name
  @name
end

- (Object) no_proxy (readonly)

List of host suffixes which will not be proxied



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 383

def no_proxy
  @no_proxy
end

- (Object) open_timeout

Seconds to wait until a connection is opened. See Net::HTTP#open_timeout



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 360

def open_timeout
  @open_timeout
end

- (Object) override_headers (readonly)

Headers that are added to every request using Net::HTTP#[]=



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 365

def override_headers
  @override_headers
end

- (Object) private_key Also known as: key

This client's SSL private key



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 370

def private_key
  @private_key
end

- (Object) proxy_uri (readonly)

The URL through which requests will be proxied



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 378

def proxy_uri
  @proxy_uri
end

- (Object) read_timeout

Seconds to wait until reading one block. See Net::HTTP#read_timeout



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 388

def read_timeout
  @read_timeout
end

- (Object) request_key (readonly)

Where this instance's request counts live in the thread local variables



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 393

def request_key
  @request_key
end

- (Object) retry_change_requests

Enable retries of non-idempotent requests that change data (e.g. POST requests) when the server has disconnected.

This will in the worst case lead to multiple requests with the same data, but it may be useful for some applications. Take care when enabling this option to ensure it is safe to POST or perform other non-idempotent requests to the server.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 463

def retry_change_requests
  @retry_change_requests
end

- (Object) reuse_ssl_sessions

By default SSL sessions are reused to avoid extra SSL handshakes. Set this to false if you have problems communicating with an HTTPS server like:

SSL_connect [...] read finished A: unexpected message (OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError)


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 402

def reuse_ssl_sessions
  @reuse_ssl_sessions
end

- (Object) socket_options (readonly)

An array of options for Socket#setsockopt.

By default the TCP_NODELAY option is set on sockets.

To set additional options append them to this array:

http.socket_options << [Socket::SOL_SOCKET, Socket::SO_KEEPALIVE, 1]


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 413

def socket_options
  @socket_options
end

- (Object) ssl_generation (readonly)

Current SSL connection generation



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 418

def ssl_generation
  @ssl_generation
end

- (Object) ssl_generation_key (readonly)

Where this instance's SSL connections live in the thread local variables



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 423

def ssl_generation_key
  @ssl_generation_key
end

- (Object) ssl_version

Returns the value of attribute ssl_version



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 431

def ssl_version
  @ssl_version
end

- (Object) timeout_key (readonly)

Where this instance's last-use times live in the thread local variables



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 436

def timeout_key
  @timeout_key
end

- (Object) verify_callback

SSL verification callback. Used when ca_file is set.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 441

def verify_callback
  @verify_callback
end

- (Object) verify_mode

HTTPS verify mode. Defaults to OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER which verifies the server certificate.

If no ca_file or cert_store is set the default system certificate store is used.

You can use verify_mode to override any default values.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 452

def verify_mode
  @verify_mode
end

Class Method Details

+ (Object) detect_idle_timeout(uri, max = 10)

Use this method to detect the idle timeout of the host at uri. The value returned can be used to configure #idle_timeout. max controls the maximum idle timeout to detect.

After

Idle timeout detection is performed by creating a connection then performing a HEAD request in a loop until the connection terminates waiting one additional second per loop.

NOTE: This may not work on ruby > 1.9.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 243

def self.detect_idle_timeout uri, max = 10
  uri = URI uri unless uri.is_a?(URI::Generic)
  uri += '/'

  req = Net::HTTP::Head.new uri.request_uri

  http = new 'net-http-persistent detect_idle_timeout'

  connection = http.connection_for uri

  sleep_time = 0

  loop do
    response = connection.request req

    $stderr.puts "HEAD #{uri} => #{response.code}" if $DEBUG

    unless response.is_a?(Net::HTTPOK) then
      raise Error, "bad response code #{response.code} detecting idle timeout"
    end

    break if sleep_time >= max

    sleep_time += 1

    $stderr.puts "sleeping #{sleep_time}" if $DEBUG
    sleep sleep_time
  end
rescue
  # ignore StandardErrors, we've probably found the idle timeout.
ensure
  http.shutdown

  return sleep_time unless $!
end

Instance Method Details

- (Boolean) can_retry?(req, retried_on_ruby_2 = false)

Is the request req idempotent or is retry_change_requests allowed.

If retried_on_ruby_2 is true, true will be returned if we are on ruby, retry_change_requests is allowed and the request is not idempotent.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 759

def can_retry? req, retried_on_ruby_2 = false
  return @retry_change_requests && !idempotent?(req) if retried_on_ruby_2

  @retry_change_requests || idempotent?(req)
end

- (Object) cleanup(generation, thread = Thread.current, generation_key = @generation_key)

Finishes all connections on the given thread that were created before the given generation in the threads generation_key list.

See #shutdown for a bunch of scary warning about misusing this method.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 568

def cleanup(generation, thread = Thread.current,
            generation_key = @generation_key) # :nodoc:
  timeouts = thread[@timeout_key]

  (0...generation).each do |old_generation|
    next unless thread[generation_key]

    conns = thread[generation_key].delete old_generation

    conns.each_value do |conn|
      finish conn, thread

      timeouts.delete conn.object_id if timeouts
    end if conns
  end
end

- (Boolean) connection_close?(header)

Workaround for missing Net::HTTPRequest#connection_close? on Ruby 1.8



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 769

def connection_close? header
  header.connection_close?
end

- (Object) connection_for(uri)

Creates a new connection for uri



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 588

def connection_for uri
  Thread.current[@generation_key]     ||= Hash.new { |h,k| h[k] = {} }
  Thread.current[@ssl_generation_key] ||= Hash.new { |h,k| h[k] = {} }
  Thread.current[@request_key]        ||= Hash.new 0
  Thread.current[@timeout_key]        ||= Hash.new EPOCH

  use_ssl = uri.scheme.downcase == 'https'

  if use_ssl then
    raise Net::HTTP::Persistent::Error, 'OpenSSL is not available' unless
      HAVE_OPENSSL

    ssl_generation = @ssl_generation

    ssl_cleanup ssl_generation

    connections = Thread.current[@ssl_generation_key][ssl_generation]
  else
    generation = @generation

    cleanup generation

    connections = Thread.current[@generation_key][generation]
  end

  net_http_args = [uri.host, uri.port]
  connection_id = net_http_args.join ':'

  if @proxy_uri and not proxy_bypass? uri.host, uri.port then
    connection_id << @proxy_connection_id
    net_http_args.concat @proxy_args
  end

  connection = connections[connection_id]

  unless connection = connections[connection_id] then
    connections[connection_id] = http_class.new(*net_http_args)
    connection = connections[connection_id]
    ssl connection if use_ssl
  else
    reset connection if expired? connection
  end

  start connection unless connection.started?

  connection.read_timeout = @read_timeout if @read_timeout
  connection.keep_alive_timeout = @idle_timeout if @idle_timeout && connection.respond_to?(:keep_alive_timeout=)

  connection
rescue Errno::ECONNREFUSED
  address = connection.proxy_address || connection.address
  port    = connection.proxy_port    || connection.port

  raise Error, "connection refused: #{address}:#{port}"
rescue Errno::EHOSTDOWN
  address = connection.proxy_address || connection.address
  port    = connection.proxy_port    || connection.port

  raise Error, "host down: #{address}:#{port}"
end

- (Boolean) connection_keep_alive?(header)

Workaround for missing Net::HTTPRequest#connection_keep_alive? on Ruby 1.8



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 776

def connection_keep_alive? header
  header.connection_keep_alive?
end

- (Object) error_message(connection)

Returns an error message containing the number of requests performed on this connection



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 653

def error_message connection
  requests = Thread.current[@request_key][connection.object_id] - 1 # fixup
  last_use = Thread.current[@timeout_key][connection.object_id]

  age = Time.now - last_use

  "after #{requests} requests on #{connection.object_id}, " \
    "last used #{age} seconds ago"
end

- (Object) escape(str)

URI::escape wrapper



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 666

def escape str
  CGI.escape str if str
end

- (Boolean) expired?(connection)

Returns true if the connection should be reset due to an idle timeout, or maximum request count, false otherwise.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 682

def expired? connection
  requests = Thread.current[@request_key][connection.object_id]
  return true  if     @max_requests && requests >= @max_requests
  return false unless @idle_timeout
  return true  if     @idle_timeout.zero?

  last_used = Thread.current[@timeout_key][connection.object_id]

  Time.now - last_used > @idle_timeout
end

- (Object) finish(connection, thread = Thread.current)

Finishes the Net::HTTP connection



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 714

def finish connection, thread = Thread.current
  if requests = thread[@request_key] then
    requests.delete connection.object_id
  end

  connection.finish
rescue IOError
end

- (Object) http_class

:nodoc:



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 723

def http_class # :nodoc:
  if RUBY_VERSION > '2.0' then
    Net::HTTP
  elsif [:Artifice, :FakeWeb, :WebMock].any? { |klass|
           Object.const_defined?(klass)
        } or not @reuse_ssl_sessions then
      Net::HTTP
  else
    Net::HTTP::Persistent::SSLReuse
  end
end

- (Object) http_version(uri)

Returns the HTTP protocol version for uri



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 738

def http_version uri
  @http_versions["#{uri.host}:#{uri.port}"]
end

- (Boolean) idempotent?(req)

Is req idempotent according to RFC 2616?



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 745

def idempotent? req
  case req
  when Net::HTTP::Delete, Net::HTTP::Get, Net::HTTP::Head,
       Net::HTTP::Options, Net::HTTP::Put, Net::HTTP::Trace then
    true
  end
end

- (Object) max_age

Deprecated in favor of #expired?



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 800

def max_age # :nodoc:
  return Time.now + 1 unless @idle_timeout

  Time.now - @idle_timeout
end

- (Object) normalize_uri(uri)

Adds “http://” to the String uri if it is missing.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 809

def normalize_uri uri
  (uri =~ /^https?:/) ? uri : "http://#{uri}"
end

- (Object) pipeline(uri, requests, &block)

Pipelines requests to the HTTP server at uri yielding responses if a block is given. Returns all responses recieved.

See Net::HTTP::Pipeline for further details.

Only if net-http-pipeline was required before net-http-persistent #pipeline will be present.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 824

def pipeline uri, requests, &block # :yields: responses
  connection = connection_for uri

  connection.pipeline requests, &block
end

- (Object) proxy=(proxy)

Sets the proxy server. The proxy may be the URI of the proxy server, the symbol :ENV which will read the proxy from the environment or nil to disable use of a proxy. See #proxy_from_env for details on setting the proxy from the environment.

If the proxy URI is set after requests have been made, the next request will shut-down and re-open all connections.

The no_proxy query parameter can be used to specify hosts which shouldn't be reached via proxy; if set it should be a comma separated list of hostname suffixes, optionally with :port appended, for example example.com,some.host:8080.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 856

def proxy= proxy
  @proxy_uri = case proxy
               when :ENV      then proxy_from_env
               when URI::HTTP then proxy
               when nil       then # ignore
               else raise ArgumentError, 'proxy must be :ENV or a URI::HTTP'
               end

  @no_proxy.clear

  if @proxy_uri then
    @proxy_args = [
      @proxy_uri.host,
      @proxy_uri.port,
      unescape(@proxy_uri.user),
      unescape(@proxy_uri.password),
    ]

    @proxy_connection_id = [nil, *@proxy_args].join ':'

    if @proxy_uri.query then
      @no_proxy = CGI.parse(@proxy_uri.query)['no_proxy'].join(',').downcase.split(',').map { |x| x.strip }.reject { |x| x.empty? }
    end
  end

  reconnect
  reconnect_ssl
end

- (Boolean) proxy_bypass?(host, port)

Returns true when proxy should by bypassed for host.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 930

def proxy_bypass? host, port
  host = host.downcase
  host_port = [host, port].join ':'

  @no_proxy.each do |name|
    return true if host[-name.length, name.length] == name or
       host_port[-name.length, name.length] == name
  end

  false
end

- (Object) proxy_from_env

Creates a URI for an HTTP proxy server from ENV variables.

If HTTP_PROXY is set a proxy will be returned.

If HTTP_PROXY_USER or HTTP_PROXY_PASS are set the URI is given the indicated user and password unless HTTP_PROXY contains either of these in the URI.

The NO_PROXY ENV variable can be used to specify hosts which shouldn't be reached via proxy; if set it should be a comma separated list of hostname suffixes, optionally with :port appended, for example example.com,some.host:8080. When set to * no proxy will be returned.

For Windows users, lowercase ENV variables are preferred over uppercase ENV variables.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 903

def proxy_from_env
  env_proxy = ENV['http_proxy'] || ENV['HTTP_PROXY']

  return nil if env_proxy.nil? or env_proxy.empty?

  uri = URI normalize_uri env_proxy

  env_no_proxy = ENV['no_proxy'] || ENV['NO_PROXY']

  # '*' is special case for always bypass
  return nil if env_no_proxy == '*'

  if env_no_proxy then
    uri.query = "no_proxy=#{escape(env_no_proxy)}"
  end

  unless uri.user or uri.password then
    uri.user     = escape ENV['http_proxy_user'] || ENV['HTTP_PROXY_USER']
    uri.password = escape ENV['http_proxy_pass'] || ENV['HTTP_PROXY_PASS']
  end

  uri
end

- (Object) reconnect

Forces reconnection of HTTP connections.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 945

def reconnect
  @generation += 1
end

- (Object) reconnect_ssl

Forces reconnection of SSL connections.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 952

def reconnect_ssl
  @ssl_generation += 1
end

- (Object) request(uri, req = nil, &block)

Makes a request on uri. If req is nil a Net::HTTP::Get is performed against uri.

If a block is passed #request behaves like Net::HTTP#request (the body of the response will not have been read).

req must be a Net::HTTPRequest subclass (see Net::HTTP for a list).

If there is an error and the request is idempotent according to RFC 2616 it will be retried automatically.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 988

def request uri, req = nil, &block
  retried      = false
  bad_response = false

  req = request_setup req || uri

  connection = connection_for uri
  connection_id = connection.object_id

  begin
    Thread.current[@request_key][connection_id] += 1
    response = connection.request req, &block

    if connection_close?(req) or
       (response.http_version <= '1.0' and
        not connection_keep_alive?(response)) or
       connection_close?(response) then
      connection.finish
    end
  rescue Net::HTTPBadResponse => e
    message = error_message connection

    finish connection

    raise Error, "too many bad responses #{message}" if
      bad_response or not can_retry? req

    bad_response = true
    retry
  rescue *RETRIED_EXCEPTIONS => e # retried on ruby 2
    request_failed e, req, connection if
      retried or not can_retry? req, @retried_on_ruby_2

    reset connection

    retried = true
    retry
  rescue Errno::EINVAL, Errno::ETIMEDOUT => e # not retried on ruby 2
    request_failed e, req, connection if retried or not can_retry? req

    reset connection

    retried = true
    retry
  rescue Exception => e
    finish connection

    raise
  ensure
    Thread.current[@timeout_key][connection_id] = Time.now
  end

  @http_versions["#{uri.host}:#{uri.port}"] ||= response.http_version

  response
end

- (Object) request_failed(exception, req, connection)

Raises an Error for exception which resulted from attempting the request req on the connection.

Finishes the connection.

Raises:



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1051

def request_failed exception, req, connection # :nodoc:
  due_to = "(due to #{exception.message} - #{exception.class})"
  message = "too many connection resets #{due_to} #{error_message connection}"

  finish connection


  raise Error, message, exception.backtrace
end

- (Object) request_setup(req_or_uri)

Creates a GET request if req_or_uri is a URI and adds headers to the request.

Returns the request.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1067

def request_setup req_or_uri # :nodoc:
  req = if req_or_uri.is_a?(URI) then
          Net::HTTP::Get.new req_or_uri.request_uri
        else
          req_or_uri
        end

  @headers.each do |pair|
    req.add_field(*pair)
  end

  @override_headers.each do |name, value|
    req[name] = value
  end

  unless req['Connection'] then
    req.add_field 'Connection', 'keep-alive'
    req.add_field 'Keep-Alive', @keep_alive
  end

  req
end

- (Object) reset(connection)

Finishes then restarts the Net::HTTP connection



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 959

def reset connection
  Thread.current[@request_key].delete connection.object_id
  Thread.current[@timeout_key].delete connection.object_id

  finish connection

  start connection
rescue Errno::ECONNREFUSED
  e = Error.new "connection refused: #{connection.address}:#{connection.port}"
  e.set_backtrace $@
  raise e
rescue Errno::EHOSTDOWN
  e = Error.new "host down: #{connection.address}:#{connection.port}"
  e.set_backtrace $@
  raise e
end

- (Object) shutdown(thread = Thread.current)

Shuts down all connections for thread.

Uses the current thread by default.

If you've used Net::HTTP::Persistent across multiple threads you should call this in each thread when you're done making HTTP requests.

NOTE: Calling shutdown for another thread can be dangerous!

If the thread is still using the connection it may cause an error! It is best to call #shutdown in the thread at the appropriate time instead!



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1103

def shutdown thread = Thread.current
  generation = reconnect
  cleanup generation, thread, @generation_key

  ssl_generation = reconnect_ssl
  cleanup ssl_generation, thread, @ssl_generation_key

  thread[@request_key] = nil
  thread[@timeout_key] = nil
end

- (Object) shutdown_in_all_threads

Shuts down all connections in all threads

NOTE: THIS METHOD IS VERY DANGEROUS!

Do not call this method if other threads are still using their connections! Call #shutdown at the appropriate time instead!

Use this method only as a last resort!



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1124

def shutdown_in_all_threads
  Thread.list.each do |thread|
    shutdown thread
  end

  nil
end

- (Object) ssl(connection)

Enables SSL on connection



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1135

def ssl connection
  connection.use_ssl = true

  connection.ssl_version = @ssl_version if @ssl_version

  connection.verify_mode = @verify_mode

  if OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER == OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE and
     not Object.const_defined?(:I_KNOW_THAT_OPENSSL_VERIFY_PEER_EQUALS_VERIFY_NONE_IS_WRONG) then
    warn <<-WARNING
                           !!!SECURITY WARNING!!!

The SSL HTTP connection to:

#{connection.address}:#{connection.port}

                         !!!MAY NOT BE VERIFIED!!!

On your platform your OpenSSL implementation is broken.

There is no difference between the values of VERIFY_NONE and VERIFY_PEER.

This means that attempting to verify the security of SSL connections may not
work.  This exposes you to man-in-the-middle exploits, snooping on the
contents of your connection and other dangers to the security of your data.

To disable this warning define the following constant at top-level in your
application:

I_KNOW_THAT_OPENSSL_VERIFY_PEER_EQUALS_VERIFY_NONE_IS_WRONG = nil

    WARNING
  end

  if @ca_file then
    connection.ca_file = @ca_file
    connection.verify_mode = OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER
    connection.verify_callback = @verify_callback if @verify_callback
  end

  if @certificate and @private_key then
    connection.cert = @certificate
    connection.key  = @private_key
  end

  connection.cert_store = if @cert_store then
                            @cert_store
                          else
                            store = OpenSSL::X509::Store.new
                            store.set_default_paths
                            store
                          end
end

- (Object) ssl_cleanup(generation)

Finishes all connections that existed before the given SSL parameter generation.



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1193

def ssl_cleanup generation # :nodoc:
  cleanup generation, Thread.current, @ssl_generation_key
end

- (Object) start(connection)

Starts the Net::HTTP connection



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 696

def start connection
  connection.set_debug_output @debug_output if @debug_output
  connection.open_timeout = @open_timeout if @open_timeout

  connection.start

  socket = connection.instance_variable_get :@socket

  if socket then # for fakeweb
    @socket_options.each do |option|
      socket.io.setsockopt(*option)
    end
  end
end

- (Object) unescape(str)

URI::unescape wrapper



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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net/http/persistent.rb', line 673

def unescape str
  CGI.unescape str if str
end