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rspec-core provides the structure for writing executable examples of how your code should behave, and an rspec command with tools to constrain which examples get run and tailor the output.


gem install rspec      # for rspec-core, rspec-expectations, rspec-mocks
gem install rspec-core # for rspec-core only
rspec --help

basic structure

RSpec uses the words “describe” and “it” so we can express concepts like a conversation:

"Describe an order."
"It sums the prices of its line items."

ruby describe Order do it "sums the prices of its line items" do order = order.add_entry( => :price =>, :USD) ))) order.add_entry( => :price =>, :USD), :quantity => 2 ))) expect( eq(, :USD)) end end

The describe method creates an ExampleGroup. Within the block passed to describe you can declare examples using the it method.

Under the hood, an example group is a class in which the block passed to describe is evaluated. The blocks passed to it are evaluated in the context of an instance of that class.

nested groups

You can also declare nested nested groups using the describe or context methods:

```ruby describe Order do context “with no items” do it “behaves one way” do # … end end

context “with one item” do it “behaves another way” do # … end end end ```


You can declare example groups using either describe or context, though only describe is available at the top level.

You can declare examples within a group using any of it, specify, or example.

shared examples and contexts

Declare a shared example group using shared_examples, and then include it in any group using include_examples.

```ruby shared_examples “collections” do |collection_class| it “is empty when first created” do expect( be_empty end end

describe Array do include_examples “collections”, Array end

describe Hash do include_examples “collections”, Hash end ```

Nearly anything that can be declared within an example group can be declared within a shared example group. This includes before, after, and around hooks, let declarations, and nested groups/contexts.

You can also use the names shared_context and include_context. These are pretty much the same as shared_examples and include_examples, providing more accurate naming when you share hooks, let declarations, helper methods, etc, but no examples.


rspec-core stores a metadata hash with every example and group, which contains their descriptions, the locations at which they were declared, etc, etc. This hash powers many of rspec-core’s features, including output formatters (which access descriptions and locations), and filtering before and after hooks.

Although you probably won’t ever need this unless you are writing an extension, you can access it from an example like this:

ruby it "does something" do expect(example.metadata[:description]).to eq("does something") end


When a class is passed to describe, you can access it from an example using the described_class method, which is a wrapper for example.metadata[:described_class].

ruby describe Widget do example do expect(described_class).to equal(Widget) end end

This is useful in extensions or shared example groups in which the specific class is unknown. Taking the collections shared example group from above, we can clean it up a bit using described_class:

```ruby shared_examples “collections” do it “is empty when first created” do expect( be_empty end end

describe Array do include_examples “collections” end

describe Hash do include_examples “collections” end ```

the rspec command

When you install the rspec-core gem, it installs the rspec executable, which you’ll use to run rspec. The rspec command comes with many useful options. Run rspec --help to see the complete list.

store command line options .rspec

You can store command line options in a .rspec file in the project’s root directory, and the rspec command will read them as though you typed them on the command line.

autotest integration

rspec-core no longer ships with an Autotest extension, if you require Autotest integration, please use the rspec-autotest gem and see rspec/rspec-autotest for details

get started

Start with a simple example of behavior you expect from your system. Do this before you write any implementation code:

ruby # in spec/calculator_spec.rb describe Calculator do describe '#add' do it 'returns the sum of its arguments' do expect(, 2)).to eq(3) end end end

Run this with the rspec command, and watch it fail:

$ rspec spec/calculator_spec.rb ./spec/calculator_spec.rb:1: uninitialized constant Calculator

Implement the simplest solution:

ruby # in lib/calculator.rb class Calculator def add(a,b) a + b end end

Be sure to require the implementation file in the spec:

ruby # in spec/calculator_spec.rb # - RSpec adds ./lib to the $LOAD_PATH require "calculator"

Now run the spec again, and watch it pass:

``` $ rspec spec/calculator_spec.rb .

Finished in 0.000315 seconds 1 example, 0 failures ```

Use the documentation formatter to see the resulting spec:

``` $ rspec spec/calculator_spec.rb –format doc Calculator #add returns the sum of its arguments

Finished in 0.000379 seconds 1 example, 0 failures ```

Also see