Class: Object

Inherits:
BasicObject
Includes:
Kernel
Defined in:
object.c

Constant Summary

NIL =
Qnil
TRUE =
Qtrue
FALSE =
Qfalse

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Methods included from Kernel

#Array, #Float, #Integer, #String, #__method__, #`, #abort, #at_exit, #autoload, #autoload?, #binding, #block_given?, #callcc, #caller, #catch, #chomp, #chomp!, #chop, #chop!, #eval, #exec, #exit, #exit!, #fail, #fork, #format, #getc, #gets, #global_variables, #gsub, #gsub!, #iterator?, #lambda, #load, #local_variables, #loop, #method_missing, #open, #p, #print, #printf, #proc, #putc, #puts, #raise, #rand, #readline, #readlines, #require, #scan, #select, #set_trace_func, #sleep, #split, #sprintf, #srand, #sub, #sub!, #syscall, #system, #test, #throw, #trace_var, #trap, #untrace_var, #warn

Constructor Details

- (Object) initialize

Not documented



# File 'object.c'

/*
 * Not documented
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy()
{
    return Qnil;
}

Dynamic Method Handling

This class handles dynamic methods through the method_missing method in the class Kernel

Instance Method Details

- (Boolean) ==(other) - (Boolean) equal?(other) - (Boolean) eql?(other)

Equality---At the Object level, == returns true only if obj and other are the same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendent classes to provide class-specific meaning.

Unlike ==, the equal? method should never be overridden by subclasses: it is used to determine object identity (that is, a.equal?(b) iff a is the same object as b).

The eql? method returns true if

<i>obj</i> and <i>anObject</i> have the

same value. Used by Hash to test members for equality. For objects of class Object, eql? is synonymous with ==. Subclasses normally continue this tradition, but there are exceptions. Numeric types, for example, perform type conversion across ==, but not across eql?, so:

1 == 1.0     #=> true
1.eql? 1.0   #=> false

Overloads:

  • - (Boolean) ==(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) equal?(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) eql?(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj == other        => true or false
 *     obj.equal?(other)   => true or false
 *     obj.eql?(other)     => true or false
 *  
 *  Equality---At the <code>Object</code> level, <code>==</code> returns
 *  <code>true</code> only if <i>obj</i> and <i>other</i> are the
 *  same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendent
 *  classes to provide class-specific meaning.
 *
 *  Unlike <code>==</code>, the <code>equal?</code> method should never be
 *  overridden by subclasses: it is used to determine object identity
 *  (that is, <code>a.equal?(b)</code> iff <code>a</code> is the same
 *  object as <code>b</code>).
 *
 *  The <code>eql?</code> method returns <code>true</code> if
    <i>obj</i> and <i>anObject</i> have the
 *  same value. Used by <code>Hash</code> to test members for equality.
 *  For objects of class <code>Object</code>, <code>eql?</code> is
 *  synonymous with <code>==</code>. Subclasses normally continue this
 *  tradition, but there are exceptions. <code>Numeric</code> types, for
 *  example, perform type conversion across <code>==</code>, but not
 *  across <code>eql?</code>, so:
 *     
 *     1 == 1.0     #=> true
 *     1.eql? 1.0   #=> false
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_equal(obj1, obj2)
    VALUE obj1, obj2;
{
    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Boolean) ===(other)

Case Equality---For class Object, effectively the same as calling #==, but typically overridden by descendents to provide meaningful semantics in case statements.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj === other   => true or false
 *  
 *  Case Equality---For class <code>Object</code>, effectively the same
 *  as calling  <code>#==</code>, but typically overridden by descendents
 *  to provide meaningful semantics in <code>case</code> statements.
 */

VALUE
rb_equal(obj1, obj2)
    VALUE obj1, obj2;
{
    VALUE result;

    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    result = rb_funcall(obj1, id_eq, 1, obj2);
    if (RTEST(result)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

- (false) =~(other)

Pattern Match---Overridden by descendents (notably Regexp and String) to provide meaningful pattern-match semantics.

Returns:

  • (false)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj =~ other  => false
 *  
 *  Pattern Match---Overridden by descendents (notably
 *  <code>Regexp</code> and <code>String</code>) to provide meaningful
 *  pattern-match semantics.
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_pattern_match(obj1, obj2)
    VALUE obj1, obj2;
{
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Object) __id__

call-seq:

obj.__id__       => fixnum
obj.object_id    => fixnum

Returns an integer identifier for obj. The same number will be returned on all calls to id for a given object, and no two active objects will share an id. Object#object_id is a different concept from the :name notation, which returns the symbol id of name. Replaces the deprecated Object#id.



# File 'gc.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.hash    => fixnum
 *
 *  Generates a <code>Fixnum</code> hash value for this object. This
 *  function must have the property that <code>a.eql?(b)</code> implies
 *  <code>a.hash == b.hash</code>. The hash value is used by class
 *  <code>Hash</code>. Any hash value that exceeds the capacity of a
 *  <code>Fixnum</code> will be truncated before being used.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_id(VALUE obj)
{
    /*
     *                32-bit VALUE space
     *          MSB ------------------------ LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol  ssssssssssssssssssssssss00001110
     *  object  oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo00        = 0 (mod sizeof(RVALUE))
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1
     *
     *                    object_id space
     *                                       LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol   000SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS0        S...S % A = 4 (S...S = s...s * A + 4)
     *  object   oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo0        o...o % A = 0
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1        bignum if required
     *
     *  where A = sizeof(RVALUE)/4
     *
     *  sizeof(RVALUE) is
     *  20 if 32-bit, double is 4-byte aligned
     *  24 if 32-bit, double is 8-byte aligned
     *  40 if 64-bit
     */
    if (TYPE(obj) == T_SYMBOL) {
        return (SYM2ID(obj) * sizeof(RVALUE) + (4 << 2)) | FIXNUM_FLAG;
    }
    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
        return LONG2NUM((long)obj);
    }
    return (VALUE)((long)obj|FIXNUM_FLAG);
}

- (Object) send(symbol[, args...]) - (Object) __send__(symbol[, args...])

Invokes the method identified by symbol, passing it any arguments specified. You can use __send__ if the name send clashes with an existing method in obj.

class Klass
  def hello(*args)
    "Hello " + args.join(' ')
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers"   #=> "Hello gentle readers"

Overloads:



# File 'eval.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.send(symbol [, args...])        => obj
 *     obj.__send__(symbol [, args...])    => obj
 *  
 *  Invokes the method identified by _symbol_, passing it any
 *  arguments specified. You can use <code>\_\_send__</code> if the name
 *  +send+ clashes with an existing method in _obj_.
 *     
 *     class Klass
 *       def hello(*args)
 *         "Hello " + args.join(' ')
 *       end
 *     end
 *     k = Klass.new
 *     k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers"   #=> "Hello gentle readers"
 */

static VALUE
rb_f_send(argc, argv, recv)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE recv;
{
    VALUE vid;

    if (argc == 0) rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "no method name given");

    vid = *argv++; argc--;
    PUSH_ITER(rb_block_given_p()?ITER_PRE:ITER_NOT);
    vid = rb_call(CLASS_OF(recv), recv, rb_to_id(vid), argc, argv, 1, Qundef);
    POP_ITER();

    return vid;
}

- (Class) class

Returns the class of obj, now preferred over Object#type, as an object's type in Ruby is only loosely tied to that object's class. This method must always be called with an explicit receiver, as class is also a reserved word in Ruby.

1.class      #=> Fixnum
self.class   #=> Object

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.class    => class
 *  
 *  Returns the class of <i>obj</i>, now preferred over
 *  <code>Object#type</code>, as an object's type in Ruby is only
 *  loosely tied to that object's class. This method must always be
 *  called with an explicit receiver, as <code>class</code> is also a
 *  reserved word in Ruby.
 *     
 *     1.class      #=> Fixnum
 *     self.class   #=> Object
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_class(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    return rb_class_real(CLASS_OF(obj));
}

- (Object) clone

Produces a shallow copy of obj---the instance variables of obj are copied, but not the objects they reference. Copies the frozen and tainted state of obj. See also the discussion under Object#dup.

class Klass
   attr_accessor :str
end
s1 = Klass.new      #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
s1.str = "Hello"    #=> "Hello"
s2 = s1.clone       #=> #<Klass:0x401b3998 @str="Hello">
s2.str[1,4] = "i"   #=> "i"
s1.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3a38 @str=\"Hi\">"
s2.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3998 @str=\"Hi\">"

This method may have class-specific behavior. If so, that behavior will be documented under the #initialize_copy method of the class.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.clone -> an_object
 *  
 *  Produces a shallow copy of <i>obj</i>---the instance variables of
 *  <i>obj</i> are copied, but not the objects they reference. Copies
 *  the frozen and tainted state of <i>obj</i>. See also the discussion
 *  under <code>Object#dup</code>.
 *     
 *     class Klass
 *        attr_accessor :str
 *     end
 *     s1 = Klass.new      #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
 *     s1.str = "Hello"    #=> "Hello"
 *     s2 = s1.clone       #=> #<Klass:0x401b3998 @str="Hello">
 *     s2.str[1,4] = "i"   #=> "i"
 *     s1.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3a38 @str=\"Hi\">"
 *     s2.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3998 @str=\"Hi\">"
 *
 *  This method may have class-specific behavior.  If so, that
 *  behavior will be documented under the #+initialize_copy+ method of
 *  the class.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_clone(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    VALUE clone;

    if (rb_special_const_p(obj)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "can't clone %s", rb_obj_classname(obj));
    }
    clone = rb_obj_alloc(rb_obj_class(obj));
    RBASIC(clone)->klass = rb_singleton_class_clone(obj);
    RBASIC(clone)->flags = (RBASIC(obj)->flags | FL_TEST(clone, FL_TAINT)) & ~(FL_FREEZE|FL_FINALIZE);
    init_copy(clone, obj);
    RBASIC(clone)->flags |= RBASIC(obj)->flags & FL_FREEZE;

    return clone;
}

- (nil) display(port = $>)

Prints obj on the given port (default $>). Equivalent to:

def display(port=$>)
  port.write self
end

For example:

1.display
"cat".display
[ 4, 5, 6 ].display
puts

produces:

1cat456

Returns:

  • (nil)


# File 'io.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.display(port=$>)    => nil
 *  
 *  Prints <i>obj</i> on the given port (default <code>$></code>).
 *  Equivalent to:
 *     
 *     def display(port=$>)
 *       port.write self
 *     end
 *     
 *  For example:
 *     
 *     1.display
 *     "cat".display
 *     [ 4, 5, 6 ].display
 *     puts
 *     
 *  <em>produces:</em>
 *     
 *     1cat456
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_display(argc, argv, self)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE self;
{
    VALUE out;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &out) == 0) {
    out = rb_stdout;
    }

    rb_io_write(out, self);

    return Qnil;
}

- (Object) dup

Produces a shallow copy of obj---the instance variables of obj are copied, but not the objects they reference. dup copies the tainted state of obj. See also the discussion under Object#clone. In general, clone and dup may have different semantics in descendent classes. While clone is used to duplicate an object, including its internal state, dup typically uses the class of the descendent object to create the new instance.

This method may have class-specific behavior. If so, that behavior will be documented under the #initialize_copy method of the class.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.dup -> an_object
 *  
 *  Produces a shallow copy of <i>obj</i>---the instance variables of
 *  <i>obj</i> are copied, but not the objects they reference.
 *  <code>dup</code> copies the tainted state of <i>obj</i>. See also
 *  the discussion under <code>Object#clone</code>. In general,
 *  <code>clone</code> and <code>dup</code> may have different semantics
 *  in descendent classes. While <code>clone</code> is used to duplicate
 *  an object, including its internal state, <code>dup</code> typically
 *  uses the class of the descendent object to create the new instance.
 *
 *  This method may have class-specific behavior.  If so, that
 *  behavior will be documented under the #+initialize_copy+ method of
 *  the class.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_dup(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    VALUE dup;

    if (rb_special_const_p(obj)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "can't dup %s", rb_obj_classname(obj));
    }
    dup = rb_obj_alloc(rb_obj_class(obj));
    init_copy(dup, obj);

    return dup;
}

- (Object) to_enum(method = :each, *args) - (Object) enum_for(method = :each, *args)

Returns Enumerable::Enumerator.new(self, method, *args).

e.g.:

str = "xyz"

enum = str.enum_for(:each_byte)
a = enum.map {|b| '%02x' % b } #=> ["78", "79", "7a"]

# protects an array from being modified
a = [1, 2, 3]
some_method(a.to_enum)


# File 'enumerator.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *    obj.to_enum(method = :each, *args)
 *    obj.enum_for(method = :each, *args)
 *
 *  Returns Enumerable::Enumerator.new(self, method, *args).
 *
 *  e.g.:
 *
 *     str = "xyz"
 *
 *     enum = str.enum_for(:each_byte)
 *     a = enum.map {|b| '%02x' % b } #=> ["78", "79", "7a"]
 *
 *     # protects an array from being modified
 *     a = [1, 2, 3]
 *     some_method(a.to_enum)
 *
 */
static VALUE
obj_to_enum(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    VALUE meth = sym_each;

    if (argc > 0) {
    --argc;
    meth = *argv++;
    }
    return rb_enumeratorize(obj, meth, argc, argv);
}

- (Boolean) ==(other) - (Boolean) equal?(other) - (Boolean) eql?(other)

Equality---At the Object level, == returns true only if obj and other are the same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendent classes to provide class-specific meaning.

Unlike ==, the equal? method should never be overridden by subclasses: it is used to determine object identity (that is, a.equal?(b) iff a is the same object as b).

The eql? method returns true if

<i>obj</i> and <i>anObject</i> have the

same value. Used by Hash to test members for equality. For objects of class Object, eql? is synonymous with ==. Subclasses normally continue this tradition, but there are exceptions. Numeric types, for example, perform type conversion across ==, but not across eql?, so:

1 == 1.0     #=> true
1.eql? 1.0   #=> false

Overloads:

  • - (Boolean) ==(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) equal?(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) eql?(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj == other        => true or false
 *     obj.equal?(other)   => true or false
 *     obj.eql?(other)     => true or false
 *  
 *  Equality---At the <code>Object</code> level, <code>==</code> returns
 *  <code>true</code> only if <i>obj</i> and <i>other</i> are the
 *  same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendent
 *  classes to provide class-specific meaning.
 *
 *  Unlike <code>==</code>, the <code>equal?</code> method should never be
 *  overridden by subclasses: it is used to determine object identity
 *  (that is, <code>a.equal?(b)</code> iff <code>a</code> is the same
 *  object as <code>b</code>).
 *
 *  The <code>eql?</code> method returns <code>true</code> if
    <i>obj</i> and <i>anObject</i> have the
 *  same value. Used by <code>Hash</code> to test members for equality.
 *  For objects of class <code>Object</code>, <code>eql?</code> is
 *  synonymous with <code>==</code>. Subclasses normally continue this
 *  tradition, but there are exceptions. <code>Numeric</code> types, for
 *  example, perform type conversion across <code>==</code>, but not
 *  across <code>eql?</code>, so:
 *     
 *     1 == 1.0     #=> true
 *     1.eql? 1.0   #=> false
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_equal(obj1, obj2)
    VALUE obj1, obj2;
{
    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Boolean) ==(other) - (Boolean) equal?(other) - (Boolean) eql?(other)

Equality---At the Object level, == returns true only if obj and other are the same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendent classes to provide class-specific meaning.

Unlike ==, the equal? method should never be overridden by subclasses: it is used to determine object identity (that is, a.equal?(b) iff a is the same object as b).

The eql? method returns true if

<i>obj</i> and <i>anObject</i> have the

same value. Used by Hash to test members for equality. For objects of class Object, eql? is synonymous with ==. Subclasses normally continue this tradition, but there are exceptions. Numeric types, for example, perform type conversion across ==, but not across eql?, so:

1 == 1.0     #=> true
1.eql? 1.0   #=> false

Overloads:

  • - (Boolean) ==(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) equal?(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) eql?(other)

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj == other        => true or false
 *     obj.equal?(other)   => true or false
 *     obj.eql?(other)     => true or false
 *  
 *  Equality---At the <code>Object</code> level, <code>==</code> returns
 *  <code>true</code> only if <i>obj</i> and <i>other</i> are the
 *  same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendent
 *  classes to provide class-specific meaning.
 *
 *  Unlike <code>==</code>, the <code>equal?</code> method should never be
 *  overridden by subclasses: it is used to determine object identity
 *  (that is, <code>a.equal?(b)</code> iff <code>a</code> is the same
 *  object as <code>b</code>).
 *
 *  The <code>eql?</code> method returns <code>true</code> if
    <i>obj</i> and <i>anObject</i> have the
 *  same value. Used by <code>Hash</code> to test members for equality.
 *  For objects of class <code>Object</code>, <code>eql?</code> is
 *  synonymous with <code>==</code>. Subclasses normally continue this
 *  tradition, but there are exceptions. <code>Numeric</code> types, for
 *  example, perform type conversion across <code>==</code>, but not
 *  across <code>eql?</code>, so:
 *     
 *     1 == 1.0     #=> true
 *     1.eql? 1.0   #=> false
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_equal(obj1, obj2)
    VALUE obj1, obj2;
{
    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Object) extend

Adds to obj the instance methods from each module given as a parameter.

module Mod
  def hello
    "Hello from Mod.\n"
  end
end

class Klass
  def hello
    "Hello from Klass.\n"
  end
end

k = Klass.new
k.hello         #=> "Hello from Klass.\n"
k.extend(Mod)   #=> #<Klass:0x401b3bc8>
k.hello         #=> "Hello from Mod.\n"

Returns:



# File 'eval.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.extend(module, ...)    => obj
 *  
 *  Adds to _obj_ the instance methods from each module given as a
 *  parameter.
 *     
 *     module Mod
 *       def hello
 *         "Hello from Mod.\n"
 *       end
 *     end
 *     
 *     class Klass
 *       def hello
 *         "Hello from Klass.\n"
 *       end
 *     end
 *     
 *     k = Klass.new
 *     k.hello         #=> "Hello from Klass.\n"
 *     k.extend(Mod)   #=> #<Klass:0x401b3bc8>
 *     k.hello         #=> "Hello from Mod.\n"
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_extend(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    int i;

    if (argc == 0) {
    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong number of arguments (0 for 1)");
    }
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) Check_Type(argv[i], T_MODULE);
    while (argc--) {
    rb_funcall(argv[argc], rb_intern("extend_object"), 1, obj);
    rb_funcall(argv[argc], rb_intern("extended"), 1, obj);
    }
    return obj;
}

- (Object) freeze

Prevents further modifications to obj. A TypeError will be raised if modification is attempted. There is no way to unfreeze a frozen object. See also Object#frozen?.

a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
a.freeze
a << "z"

produces:

prog.rb:3:in `<<': can't modify frozen array (TypeError)
 from prog.rb:3

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.freeze    => obj
 *  
 *  Prevents further modifications to <i>obj</i>. A
 *  <code>TypeError</code> will be raised if modification is attempted.
 *  There is no way to unfreeze a frozen object. See also
 *  <code>Object#frozen?</code>.
 *     
 *     a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
 *     a.freeze
 *     a << "z"
 *     
 *  <em>produces:</em>
 *     
 *     prog.rb:3:in `<<': can't modify frozen array (TypeError)
 *      from prog.rb:3
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_freeze(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    if (!OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) {
    if (rb_safe_level() >= 4 && !OBJ_TAINTED(obj)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure: can't freeze object");
    }
    OBJ_FREEZE(obj);
    }
    return obj;
}

- (Boolean) frozen?

Returns the freeze status of obj.

a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
a.freeze    #=> ["a", "b", "c"]
a.frozen?   #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.frozen?    => true or false
 *  
 *  Returns the freeze status of <i>obj</i>.
 *     
 *     a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
 *     a.freeze    #=> ["a", "b", "c"]
 *     a.frozen?   #=> true
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_frozen_p(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Fixnum) hash

Generates a Fixnum hash value for this object. This function must have the property that a.eql?(b) implies a.hash == b.hash. The hash value is used by class Hash. Any hash value that exceeds the capacity of a Fixnum will be truncated before being used.

Returns:



# File 'gc.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.hash    => fixnum
 *
 *  Generates a <code>Fixnum</code> hash value for this object. This
 *  function must have the property that <code>a.eql?(b)</code> implies
 *  <code>a.hash == b.hash</code>. The hash value is used by class
 *  <code>Hash</code>. Any hash value that exceeds the capacity of a
 *  <code>Fixnum</code> will be truncated before being used.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_id(VALUE obj)
{
    /*
     *                32-bit VALUE space
     *          MSB ------------------------ LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol  ssssssssssssssssssssssss00001110
     *  object  oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo00        = 0 (mod sizeof(RVALUE))
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1
     *
     *                    object_id space
     *                                       LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol   000SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS0        S...S % A = 4 (S...S = s...s * A + 4)
     *  object   oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo0        o...o % A = 0
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1        bignum if required
     *
     *  where A = sizeof(RVALUE)/4
     *
     *  sizeof(RVALUE) is
     *  20 if 32-bit, double is 4-byte aligned
     *  24 if 32-bit, double is 8-byte aligned
     *  40 if 64-bit
     */
    if (TYPE(obj) == T_SYMBOL) {
        return (SYM2ID(obj) * sizeof(RVALUE) + (4 << 2)) | FIXNUM_FLAG;
    }
    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
        return LONG2NUM((long)obj);
    }
    return (VALUE)((long)obj|FIXNUM_FLAG);
}

- (Fixnum) id

Soon-to-be deprecated version of Object#object_id.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.id    => fixnum
 *  
 *  Soon-to-be deprecated version of <code>Object#object_id</code>.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_id_obsolete(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    rb_warn("Object#id will be deprecated; use Object#object_id");
    return rb_obj_id(obj);
}

- (Object) initialize_copy

:nodoc:



# File 'object.c'

/* :nodoc: */
VALUE
rb_obj_init_copy(obj, orig)
    VALUE obj, orig;
{
    if (obj == orig) return obj;
    rb_check_frozen(obj);
    if (TYPE(obj) != TYPE(orig) || rb_obj_class(obj) != rb_obj_class(orig)) {
    rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "initialize_copy should take same class object");
    }
    return obj;
}

- (String) inspect

Returns a string containing a human-readable representation of obj. If not overridden, uses the to_s method to generate the string.

[ 1, 2, 3..4, 'five' ].inspect   #=> "[1, 2, 3..4, \"five\"]"
Time.new.inspect                 #=> "Wed Apr 09 08:54:39 CDT 2003"

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.inspect   => string
 *  
 *  Returns a string containing a human-readable representation of
 *  <i>obj</i>. If not overridden, uses the <code>to_s</code> method to
 *  generate the string.
 *     
 *     [ 1, 2, 3..4, 'five' ].inspect   #=> "[1, 2, 3..4, \"five\"]"
 *     Time.new.inspect                 #=> "Wed Apr 09 08:54:39 CDT 2003"
 */


static VALUE
rb_obj_inspect(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    if (TYPE(obj) == T_OBJECT
    && ROBJECT(obj)->iv_tbl
    && ROBJECT(obj)->iv_tbl->num_entries > 0) {
    VALUE str;
    size_t len;
    const char *c = rb_obj_classname(obj);

    if (rb_inspecting_p(obj)) {
        len = strlen(c)+10+16+1;
        str = rb_str_new(0, len); /* 10:tags 16:addr 1:nul */
        snprintf(RSTRING(str)->ptr, len, "#<%s:0x%lx ...>", c, obj);
        RSTRING(str)->len = strlen(RSTRING(str)->ptr);
        return str;
    }
    len = strlen(c)+6+16+1;
    str = rb_str_new(0, len);     /* 6:tags 16:addr 1:nul */
    snprintf(RSTRING(str)->ptr, len, "-<%s:0x%lx", c, obj);
    RSTRING(str)->len = strlen(RSTRING(str)->ptr);
    return rb_protect_inspect(inspect_obj, obj, str);
    }
    return rb_funcall(obj, rb_intern("to_s"), 0, 0);
}

- (Object) instance_eval(string[, filename [, lineno]]) - (Object) instance_eval {|| ... }

Evaluates a string containing Ruby source code, or the given block, within the context of the receiver (obj). In order to set the context, the variable self is set to obj while the code is executing, giving the code access to obj's instance variables. In the version of instance_eval that takes a String, the optional second and third parameters supply a filename and starting line number that are used when reporting compilation errors.

class Klass
  def initialize
    @secret = 99
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.instance_eval { @secret }   #=> 99

Overloads:

  • - (Object) instance_eval(string[, filename [, lineno]])

    Returns:

  • - (Object) instance_eval {|| ... }

    Yields:

    • ()

    Returns:



# File 'eval.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.instance_eval(string [, filename [, lineno]] )   => obj
 *     obj.instance_eval {| | block }                       => obj
 *  
 *  Evaluates a string containing Ruby source code, or the given block,
 *  within the context of the receiver (_obj_). In order to set the
 *  context, the variable +self+ is set to _obj_ while
 *  the code is executing, giving the code access to _obj_'s
 *  instance variables. In the version of <code>instance_eval</code>
 *  that takes a +String+, the optional second and third
 *  parameters supply a filename and starting line number that are used
 *  when reporting compilation errors.
 *     
 *     class Klass
 *       def initialize
 *         @secret = 99
 *       end
 *     end
 *     k = Klass.new
 *     k.instance_eval { @secret }   #=> 99
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_eval(argc, argv, self)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE self;
{
    VALUE klass;

    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(self)) {
    klass = Qnil;
    }
    else {
    klass = rb_singleton_class(self);
    }
    return specific_eval(argc, argv, klass, self);
}

- (Object) instance_exec(arg...) {|var...| ... }

Executes the given block within the context of the receiver (obj). In order to set the context, the variable self is set to obj while the code is executing, giving the code access to obj's instance variables. Arguments are passed as block parameters.

class KlassWithSecret
  def initialize
    @secret = 99
  end
end
k = KlassWithSecret.new
k.instance_exec(5) {|x| @secret+x }   #=> 104

Yields:

  • (var...)

Returns:



# File 'eval.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.instance_exec(arg...) {|var...| block }                       => obj
 *
 *  Executes the given block within the context of the receiver
 *  (_obj_). In order to set the context, the variable +self+ is set
 *  to _obj_ while the code is executing, giving the code access to
 *  _obj_'s instance variables.  Arguments are passed as block parameters.
 *
 *     class KlassWithSecret
 *       def initialize
 *         @secret = 99
 *       end
 *     end
 *     k = KlassWithSecret.new
 *     k.instance_exec(5) {|x| @secret+x }   #=> 104
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_exec(argc, argv, self)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE self;
{
    VALUE klass;

    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(self)) {
    klass = Qnil;
    }
    else {
    klass = rb_singleton_class(self);
    }
    return yield_under(klass, self, rb_ary_new4(argc, argv));
}

- (Boolean) instance_of?

Returns true if obj is an instance of the given class. See also Object#kind_of?.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.instance_of?(class)    => true or false
 *  
 *  Returns <code>true</code> if <i>obj</i> is an instance of the given
 *  class. See also <code>Object#kind_of?</code>.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_is_instance_of(obj, c)
    VALUE obj, c;
{
    switch (TYPE(c)) {
      case T_MODULE:
      case T_CLASS:
      case T_ICLASS:
    break;
      default:
    rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "class or module required");
    }

    if (rb_obj_class(obj) == c) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Boolean) instance_variable_defined?(symbol)

Returns true if the given instance variable is defined in obj.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_defined?(:@a)    #=> true
fred.instance_variable_defined?("@b")   #=> true
fred.instance_variable_defined?("@c")   #=> false

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.instance_variable_defined?(symbol)    => true or false
 *
 *  Returns <code>true</code> if the given instance variable is
 *  defined in <i>obj</i>.
 *
 *     class Fred
 *       def initialize(p1, p2)
 *         @a, @b = p1, p2
 *       end
 *     end
 *     fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
 *     fred.instance_variable_defined?(:@a)    #=> true
 *     fred.instance_variable_defined?("@b")   #=> true
 *     fred.instance_variable_defined?("@c")   #=> false
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_defined(obj, iv)
    VALUE obj, iv;
{
    ID id = rb_to_id(iv);

    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
    rb_name_error(id, "`%s' is not allowed as an instance variable name", rb_id2name(id));
    }
    return rb_ivar_defined(obj, id);
}

- (Object) instance_variable_get(symbol)

Returns the value of the given instance variable, or nil if the instance variable is not set. The @ part of the variable name should be included for regular instance variables. Throws a NameError exception if the supplied symbol is not valid as an instance variable name.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_get(:@a)    #=> "cat"
fred.instance_variable_get("@b")   #=> 99

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.instance_variable_get(symbol)    => obj
 *
 *  Returns the value of the given instance variable, or nil if the
 *  instance variable is not set. The <code>@</code> part of the
 *  variable name should be included for regular instance
 *  variables. Throws a <code>NameError</code> exception if the
 *  supplied symbol is not valid as an instance variable name.
 *     
 *     class Fred
 *       def initialize(p1, p2)
 *         @a, @b = p1, p2
 *       end
 *     end
 *     fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
 *     fred.instance_variable_get(:@a)    #=> "cat"
 *     fred.instance_variable_get("@b")   #=> 99
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_get(obj, iv)
    VALUE obj, iv;
{
    ID id = rb_to_id(iv);

    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
    rb_name_error(id, "`%s' is not allowed as an instance variable name", rb_id2name(id));
    }
    return rb_ivar_get(obj, id);
}

- (Object) instance_variable_set(symbol, obj)

Sets the instance variable names by symbol to object, thereby frustrating the efforts of the class's author to attempt to provide proper encapsulation. The variable did not have to exist prior to this call.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_set(:@a, 'dog')   #=> "dog"
fred.instance_variable_set(:@c, 'cat')   #=> "cat"
fred.inspect                             #=> "#<Fred:0x401b3da8 @a=\"dog\", @b=99, @c=\"cat\">"

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.instance_variable_set(symbol, obj)    => obj
 *  
 *  Sets the instance variable names by <i>symbol</i> to
 *  <i>object</i>, thereby frustrating the efforts of the class's
 *  author to attempt to provide proper encapsulation. The variable
 *  did not have to exist prior to this call.
 *     
 *     class Fred
 *       def initialize(p1, p2)
 *         @a, @b = p1, p2
 *       end
 *     end
 *     fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
 *     fred.instance_variable_set(:@a, 'dog')   #=> "dog"
 *     fred.instance_variable_set(:@c, 'cat')   #=> "cat"
 *     fred.inspect                             #=> "#<Fred:0x401b3da8 @a=\"dog\", @b=99, @c=\"cat\">"
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_set(obj, iv, val)
    VALUE obj, iv, val;
{
    ID id = rb_to_id(iv);

    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
    rb_name_error(id, "`%s' is not allowed as an instance variable name", rb_id2name(id));
    }
    return rb_ivar_set(obj, id, val);
}

- (Array) instance_variables

Returns an array of instance variable names for the receiver. Note that simply defining an accessor does not create the corresponding instance variable.

class Fred
  attr_accessor :a1
  def initialize
    @iv = 3
  end
end
Fred.new.instance_variables   #=> ["@iv"]

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.instance_variables    => array
 *  
 *  Returns an array of instance variable names for the receiver. Note
 *  that simply defining an accessor does not create the corresponding
 *  instance variable.
 *     
 *     class Fred
 *       attr_accessor :a1
 *       def initialize
 *         @iv = 3
 *       end
 *     end
 *     Fred.new.instance_variables   #=> ["@iv"]
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_variables(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    VALUE ary;

    ary = rb_ary_new();
    switch (TYPE(obj)) {
      case T_OBJECT:
      case T_CLASS:
      case T_MODULE:
	if (ROBJECT(obj)->iv_tbl) {
	    st_foreach_safe(ROBJECT(obj)->iv_tbl, ivar_i, ary);
	}
	break;
      default:
	if (!generic_iv_tbl) break;
	if (FL_TEST(obj, FL_EXIVAR) || rb_special_const_p(obj)) {
	    st_data_t tbl;

	    if (st_lookup(generic_iv_tbl, obj, &tbl)) {
		st_foreach_safe((st_table *)tbl, ivar_i, ary);
	    }
	}
	break;
    }
    return ary;
}

- (Boolean) is_a? - (Boolean) kind_of?

Returns true if class is the class of obj, or if class is one of the superclasses of obj or modules included in obj.

module M;    end
class A
  include M
end
class B < A; end
class C < B; end
b = B.new
b.instance_of? A   #=> false
b.instance_of? B   #=> true
b.instance_of? C   #=> false
b.instance_of? M   #=> false
b.kind_of? A       #=> true
b.kind_of? B       #=> true
b.kind_of? C       #=> false
b.kind_of? M       #=> true

Overloads:

  • - (Boolean) is_a?

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) kind_of?

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.is_a?(class)       => true or false
 *     obj.kind_of?(class)    => true or false
 *  
 *  Returns <code>true</code> if <i>class</i> is the class of
 *  <i>obj</i>, or if <i>class</i> is one of the superclasses of
 *  <i>obj</i> or modules included in <i>obj</i>.
 *     
 *     module M;    end
 *     class A
 *       include M
 *     end
 *     class B < A; end
 *     class C < B; end
 *     b = B.new
 *     b.instance_of? A   #=> false
 *     b.instance_of? B   #=> true
 *     b.instance_of? C   #=> false
 *     b.instance_of? M   #=> false
 *     b.kind_of? A       #=> true
 *     b.kind_of? B       #=> true
 *     b.kind_of? C       #=> false
 *     b.kind_of? M       #=> true
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_is_kind_of(obj, c)
    VALUE obj, c;
{
    VALUE cl = CLASS_OF(obj);

    switch (TYPE(c)) {
      case T_MODULE:
      case T_CLASS:
      case T_ICLASS:
    break;

      default:
    rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "class or module required");
    }

    while (cl) {
    if (cl == c || RCLASS(cl)->m_tbl == RCLASS(c)->m_tbl)
        return Qtrue;
    cl = RCLASS(cl)->super;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Boolean) is_a? - (Boolean) kind_of?

Returns true if class is the class of obj, or if class is one of the superclasses of obj or modules included in obj.

module M;    end
class A
  include M
end
class B < A; end
class C < B; end
b = B.new
b.instance_of? A   #=> false
b.instance_of? B   #=> true
b.instance_of? C   #=> false
b.instance_of? M   #=> false
b.kind_of? A       #=> true
b.kind_of? B       #=> true
b.kind_of? C       #=> false
b.kind_of? M       #=> true

Overloads:

  • - (Boolean) is_a?

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • - (Boolean) kind_of?

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.is_a?(class)       => true or false
 *     obj.kind_of?(class)    => true or false
 *  
 *  Returns <code>true</code> if <i>class</i> is the class of
 *  <i>obj</i>, or if <i>class</i> is one of the superclasses of
 *  <i>obj</i> or modules included in <i>obj</i>.
 *     
 *     module M;    end
 *     class A
 *       include M
 *     end
 *     class B < A; end
 *     class C < B; end
 *     b = B.new
 *     b.instance_of? A   #=> false
 *     b.instance_of? B   #=> true
 *     b.instance_of? C   #=> false
 *     b.instance_of? M   #=> false
 *     b.kind_of? A       #=> true
 *     b.kind_of? B       #=> true
 *     b.kind_of? C       #=> false
 *     b.kind_of? M       #=> true
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_is_kind_of(obj, c)
    VALUE obj, c;
{
    VALUE cl = CLASS_OF(obj);

    switch (TYPE(c)) {
      case T_MODULE:
      case T_CLASS:
      case T_ICLASS:
    break;

      default:
    rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "class or module required");
    }

    while (cl) {
    if (cl == c || RCLASS(cl)->m_tbl == RCLASS(c)->m_tbl)
        return Qtrue;
    cl = RCLASS(cl)->super;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Object) method(sym)

Looks up the named method as a receiver in obj, returning a Method object (or raising NameError). The Method object acts as a closure in obj's object instance, so instance variables and the value of self remain available.

class Demo
  def initialize(n)
    @iv = n
  end
  def hello()
    "Hello, @iv = #{@iv}"
  end
end

k = Demo.new(99)
m = k.method(:hello)
m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = 99"

l = Demo.new('Fred')
m = l.method("hello")
m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = Fred"


# File 'eval.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.method(sym)    => method
 *  
 *  Looks up the named method as a receiver in <i>obj</i>, returning a
 *  <code>Method</code> object (or raising <code>NameError</code>). The
 *  <code>Method</code> object acts as a closure in <i>obj</i>'s object
 *  instance, so instance variables and the value of <code>self</code>
 *  remain available.
 *     
 *     class Demo
 *       def initialize(n)
 *         @iv = n
 *       end
 *       def hello()
 *         "Hello, @iv = #{@iv}"
 *       end
 *     end
 *     
 *     k = Demo.new(99)
 *     m = k.method(:hello)
 *     m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = 99"
 *     
 *     l = Demo.new('Fred')
 *     m = l.method("hello")
 *     m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = Fred"
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_method(obj, vid)
    VALUE obj;
    VALUE vid;
{
    return mnew(CLASS_OF(obj), obj, rb_to_id(vid), rb_cMethod);
}

- (Array) methods

Returns a list of the names of methods publicly accessible in obj. This will include all the methods accessible in obj's ancestors.

class Klass
  def kMethod()
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.methods[0..9]    #=> ["kMethod", "freeze", "nil?", "is_a?",
                        "class", "instance_variable_set",
                         "methods", "extend", "__send__", "instance_eval"]
k.methods.length   #=> 42

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.methods    => array
 *  
 *  Returns a list of the names of methods publicly accessible in
 *  <i>obj</i>. This will include all the methods accessible in
 *  <i>obj</i>'s ancestors.
 *     
 *     class Klass
 *       def kMethod()
 *       end
 *     end
 *     k = Klass.new
 *     k.methods[0..9]    #=> ["kMethod", "freeze", "nil?", "is_a?", 
 *                             "class", "instance_variable_set",
 *                              "methods", "extend", "__send__", "instance_eval"]
 *     k.methods.length   #=> 42
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_methods(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
  retry:
    if (argc == 0) {
    VALUE args[1];

    args[0] = Qtrue;
    return rb_class_instance_methods(1, args, CLASS_OF(obj));
    }
    else {
    VALUE recur;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1", &recur);
    if (RTEST(recur)) {
        argc = 0;
        goto retry;
    }
    return rb_obj_singleton_methods(argc, argv, obj);
    }
}

- (Object) nil?

call_seq:

nil.nil?               => true
<anything_else>.nil?   => false

Only the object nil responds true to nil?.



# File 'object.c'

/*
 * call_seq:
 *   nil.nil?               => true
 *   <anything_else>.nil?   => false
 *
 * Only the object <i>nil</i> responds <code>true</code> to <code>nil?</code>.
 */


static VALUE
rb_false(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Fixnum) __id__ - (Fixnum) object_id

Returns an integer identifier for obj. The same number will be returned on all calls to id for a given object, and no two active objects will share an id. Object#object_id is a different concept from the :name notation, which returns the symbol id of name. Replaces the deprecated Object#id.

Overloads:



# File 'gc.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.hash    => fixnum
 *
 *  Generates a <code>Fixnum</code> hash value for this object. This
 *  function must have the property that <code>a.eql?(b)</code> implies
 *  <code>a.hash == b.hash</code>. The hash value is used by class
 *  <code>Hash</code>. Any hash value that exceeds the capacity of a
 *  <code>Fixnum</code> will be truncated before being used.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_id(VALUE obj)
{
    /*
     *                32-bit VALUE space
     *          MSB ------------------------ LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol  ssssssssssssssssssssssss00001110
     *  object  oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo00        = 0 (mod sizeof(RVALUE))
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1
     *
     *                    object_id space
     *                                       LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol   000SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS0        S...S % A = 4 (S...S = s...s * A + 4)
     *  object   oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo0        o...o % A = 0
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1        bignum if required
     *
     *  where A = sizeof(RVALUE)/4
     *
     *  sizeof(RVALUE) is
     *  20 if 32-bit, double is 4-byte aligned
     *  24 if 32-bit, double is 8-byte aligned
     *  40 if 64-bit
     */
    if (TYPE(obj) == T_SYMBOL) {
        return (SYM2ID(obj) * sizeof(RVALUE) + (4 << 2)) | FIXNUM_FLAG;
    }
    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
        return LONG2NUM((long)obj);
    }
    return (VALUE)((long)obj|FIXNUM_FLAG);
}

- (Array) private_methods(all = true)

Returns the list of private methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.private_methods(all=true)   => array
 *  
 *  Returns the list of private methods accessible to <i>obj</i>. If
 *  the <i>all</i> parameter is set to <code>false</code>, only those methods
 *  in the receiver will be listed.
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_private_methods(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    if (argc == 0) {        /* hack to stop warning */
    VALUE args[1];

    args[0] = Qtrue;
    return rb_class_private_instance_methods(1, args, CLASS_OF(obj));
    }
    return rb_class_private_instance_methods(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj));
}

- (Array) protected_methods(all = true)

Returns the list of protected methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.protected_methods(all=true)   => array
 *  
 *  Returns the list of protected methods accessible to <i>obj</i>. If
 *  the <i>all</i> parameter is set to <code>false</code>, only those methods
 *  in the receiver will be listed.
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_protected_methods(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    if (argc == 0) {        /* hack to stop warning */
    VALUE args[1];

    args[0] = Qtrue;
    return rb_class_protected_instance_methods(1, args, CLASS_OF(obj));
    }
    return rb_class_protected_instance_methods(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj));
}

- (Array) public_methods(all = true)

Returns the list of public methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.public_methods(all=true)   => array
 *  
 *  Returns the list of public methods accessible to <i>obj</i>. If
 *  the <i>all</i> parameter is set to <code>false</code>, only those methods
 *  in the receiver will be listed.
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_public_methods(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    if (argc == 0) {        /* hack to stop warning */
    VALUE args[1];

    args[0] = Qtrue;
    return rb_class_public_instance_methods(1, args, CLASS_OF(obj));
    }
    return rb_class_public_instance_methods(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj));
}

- (Object) remove_instance_variable(symbol)

Removes the named instance variable from obj, returning that variable's value.

class Dummy
  attr_reader :var
  def initialize
    @var = 99
  end
  def remove
    remove_instance_variable(:@var)
  end
end
d = Dummy.new
d.var      #=> 99
d.remove   #=> 99
d.var      #=> nil

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.remove_instance_variable(symbol)    => obj
 *  
 *  Removes the named instance variable from <i>obj</i>, returning that
 *  variable's value.
 *     
 *     class Dummy
 *       attr_reader :var
 *       def initialize
 *         @var = 99
 *       end
 *       def remove
 *         remove_instance_variable(:@var)
 *       end
 *     end
 *     d = Dummy.new
 *     d.var      #=> 99
 *     d.remove   #=> 99
 *     d.var      #=> nil
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_remove_instance_variable(obj, name)
    VALUE obj, name;
{
    VALUE val = Qnil;
    ID id = rb_to_id(name);

    if (!OBJ_TAINTED(obj) && rb_safe_level() >= 4)
	rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure: can't modify instance variable");
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) rb_error_frozen("object");
    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
	rb_name_error(id, "`%s' is not allowed as an instance variable name", rb_id2name(id));
    }

    switch (TYPE(obj)) {
      case T_OBJECT:
      case T_CLASS:
      case T_MODULE:
	if (ROBJECT(obj)->iv_tbl && st_delete(ROBJECT(obj)->iv_tbl, (st_data_t*)&id, &val)) {
	    return val;
	}
	break;
      default:
	if (FL_TEST(obj, FL_EXIVAR) || rb_special_const_p(obj)) {
	    if (generic_ivar_remove(obj, id, &val)) {
		return val;
	    }
	}
	break;
    }
    rb_name_error(id, "instance variable %s not defined", rb_id2name(id));
    return Qnil;		/* not reached */
}

- (Boolean) respond_to?(symbol, include_private = false)

Returns true> if obj responds to the given method. Private methods are included in the search only if the optional second parameter evaluates to true.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


# File 'eval.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.respond_to?(symbol, include_private=false) => true or false
 *  
 *  Returns +true+> if _obj_ responds to the given
 *  method. Private methods are included in the search only if the
 *  optional second parameter evaluates to +true+.
 */

static VALUE
obj_respond_to(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    VALUE mid, priv;
    ID id;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &mid, &priv);
    id = rb_to_id(mid);
    if (rb_method_boundp(CLASS_OF(obj), id, !RTEST(priv))) {
    return Qtrue;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Object) send(symbol[, args...]) - (Object) __send__(symbol[, args...])

Invokes the method identified by symbol, passing it any arguments specified. You can use __send__ if the name send clashes with an existing method in obj.

class Klass
  def hello(*args)
    "Hello " + args.join(' ')
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers"   #=> "Hello gentle readers"

Overloads:



# File 'eval.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.send(symbol [, args...])        => obj
 *     obj.__send__(symbol [, args...])    => obj
 *  
 *  Invokes the method identified by _symbol_, passing it any
 *  arguments specified. You can use <code>\_\_send__</code> if the name
 *  +send+ clashes with an existing method in _obj_.
 *     
 *     class Klass
 *       def hello(*args)
 *         "Hello " + args.join(' ')
 *       end
 *     end
 *     k = Klass.new
 *     k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers"   #=> "Hello gentle readers"
 */

static VALUE
rb_f_send(argc, argv, recv)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE recv;
{
    VALUE vid;

    if (argc == 0) rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "no method name given");

    vid = *argv++; argc--;
    PUSH_ITER(rb_block_given_p()?ITER_PRE:ITER_NOT);
    vid = rb_call(CLASS_OF(recv), recv, rb_to_id(vid), argc, argv, 1, Qundef);
    POP_ITER();

    return vid;
}

- (Object) singleton_method_added(symbol)

Invoked as a callback whenever a singleton method is added to the receiver.

module Chatty
  def Chatty.singleton_method_added(id)
    puts "Adding #{id.id2name}"
  end
  def self.one()     end
  def two()          end
  def Chatty.three() end
end

produces:

Adding singleton_method_added
Adding one
Adding three


# File 'object.c'

/*
 * Not documented
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy()
{
    return Qnil;
}

- (Object) singleton_method_removed(symbol)

Invoked as a callback whenever a singleton method is removed from the receiver.

module Chatty
  def Chatty.singleton_method_removed(id)
    puts "Removing #{id.id2name}"
  end
  def self.one()     end
  def two()          end
  def Chatty.three() end
  class <<self
    remove_method :three
    remove_method :one
  end
end

produces:

Removing three
Removing one


# File 'object.c'

/*
 * Not documented
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy()
{
    return Qnil;
}

- (Object) singleton_method_undefined(symbol)

Invoked as a callback whenever a singleton method is undefined in the receiver.

module Chatty
  def Chatty.singleton_method_undefined(id)
    puts "Undefining #{id.id2name}"
  end
  def Chatty.one()   end
  class << self
     undef_method(:one)
  end
end

produces:

Undefining one


# File 'object.c'

/*
 * Not documented
 */

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy()
{
    return Qnil;
}

- (Array) singleton_methods(all = true)

Returns an array of the names of singleton methods for obj. If the optional all parameter is true, the list will include methods in modules included in obj.

module Other
  def three() end
end

class Single
  def Single.four() end
end

a = Single.new

def a.one()
end

class << a
  include Other
  def two()
  end
end

Single.singleton_methods    #=> ["four"]
a.singleton_methods(false)  #=> ["two", "one"]
a.singleton_methods         #=> ["two", "one", "three"]

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.singleton_methods(all=true)    => array
 *  
 *  Returns an array of the names of singleton methods for <i>obj</i>.
 *  If the optional <i>all</i> parameter is true, the list will include
 *  methods in modules included in <i>obj</i>.
 *     
 *     module Other
 *       def three() end
 *     end
 *     
 *     class Single
 *       def Single.four() end
 *     end
 *     
 *     a = Single.new
 *     
 *     def a.one()
 *     end
 *     
 *     class << a
 *       include Other
 *       def two()
 *       end
 *     end
 *     
 *     Single.singleton_methods    #=> ["four"]
 *     a.singleton_methods(false)  #=> ["two", "one"]
 *     a.singleton_methods         #=> ["two", "one", "three"]
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_singleton_methods(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    VALUE recur, ary, klass;
    st_table *list;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &recur);
    if (argc == 0) {
	recur = Qtrue;
    }
    klass = CLASS_OF(obj);
    list = st_init_numtable();
    if (klass && FL_TEST(klass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
	st_foreach(RCLASS(klass)->m_tbl, method_entry, (st_data_t)list);
	klass = RCLASS(klass)->super;
    }
    if (RTEST(recur)) {
	while (klass && (FL_TEST(klass, FL_SINGLETON) || TYPE(klass) == T_ICLASS)) {
	    st_foreach(RCLASS(klass)->m_tbl, method_entry, (st_data_t)list);
	    klass = RCLASS(klass)->super;
	}
    }
    ary = rb_ary_new();
    st_foreach(list, ins_methods_i, ary);
    st_free_table(list);

    return ary;
}

- (Object) taint

Marks obj as tainted---if the $SAFE level is set appropriately, many method calls which might alter the running programs environment will refuse to accept tainted strings.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.taint -> obj
 *  
 *  Marks <i>obj</i> as tainted---if the <code>$SAFE</code> level is
 *  set appropriately, many method calls which might alter the running
 *  programs environment will refuse to accept tainted strings.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_taint(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    rb_secure(4);
    if (!OBJ_TAINTED(obj)) {
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) {
        rb_error_frozen("object");
    }
    OBJ_TAINT(obj);
    }
    return obj;
}

- (Boolean) tainted?

Returns true if the object is tainted.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.tainted?    => true or false
 *  
 *  Returns <code>true</code> if the object is tainted.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_tainted(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(obj))
    return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

- (Object) tap {|x| ... }

Yields x to the block, and then returns x. The primary purpose of this method is to "tap into" a method chain, in order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.

(1..10).tap

|x| puts "original: #{x.inspect"

}.to_a.tap {

|x| puts "array: #{x.inspect}"

}.select {|x| x%2==0}.tap {

|x| puts "evens: #{x.inspect}"

}.map {|x| x*x}.tap {

|x| puts "squares: #{x.inspect}"

}

Yields:

  • (x)

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.tap{|x|...}    => obj
 *  
 *  Yields <code>x</code> to the block, and then returns <code>x</code>.
 *  The primary purpose of this method is to "tap into" a method chain,
 *  in order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.
 *
 *  (1..10).tap {
 *    |x| puts "original: #{x.inspect}"
 *  }.to_a.tap {
 *    |x| puts "array: #{x.inspect}"
 *  }.select {|x| x%2==0}.tap {
 *    |x| puts "evens: #{x.inspect}"
 *  }.map {|x| x*x}.tap {
 *    |x| puts "squares: #{x.inspect}"
 *  }
 *
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_tap(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    rb_yield(obj);
    return obj;
}

- (Array) to_a

Returns an array representation of obj. For objects of class Object and others that don't explicitly override the method, the return value is an array containing self. However, this latter behavior will soon be obsolete.

self.to_a       #=> -:1: warning: default `to_a' will be obsolete
"hello".to_a    #=> ["hello"]
Time.new.to_a   #=> [39, 54, 8, 9, 4, 2003, 3, 99, true, "CDT"]

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.to_a -> anArray
 *  
 *  Returns an array representation of <i>obj</i>. For objects of class
 *  <code>Object</code> and others that don't explicitly override the
 *  method, the return value is an array containing <code>self</code>. 
 *  However, this latter behavior will soon be obsolete.
 *     
 *     self.to_a       #=> -:1: warning: default `to_a' will be obsolete
 *     "hello".to_a    #=> ["hello"]
 *     Time.new.to_a   #=> [39, 54, 8, 9, 4, 2003, 3, 99, true, "CDT"]
 */


static VALUE
rb_any_to_a(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    rb_warn("default `to_a' will be obsolete");
    return rb_ary_new3(1, obj);
}

- (Object) to_enum(method = :each, *args) - (Object) enum_for(method = :each, *args)

Returns Enumerable::Enumerator.new(self, method, *args).

e.g.:

str = "xyz"

enum = str.enum_for(:each_byte)
a = enum.map {|b| '%02x' % b } #=> ["78", "79", "7a"]

# protects an array from being modified
a = [1, 2, 3]
some_method(a.to_enum)


# File 'enumerator.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *    obj.to_enum(method = :each, *args)
 *    obj.enum_for(method = :each, *args)
 *
 *  Returns Enumerable::Enumerator.new(self, method, *args).
 *
 *  e.g.:
 *
 *     str = "xyz"
 *
 *     enum = str.enum_for(:each_byte)
 *     a = enum.map {|b| '%02x' % b } #=> ["78", "79", "7a"]
 *
 *     # protects an array from being modified
 *     a = [1, 2, 3]
 *     some_method(a.to_enum)
 *
 */
static VALUE
obj_to_enum(argc, argv, obj)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE obj;
{
    VALUE meth = sym_each;

    if (argc > 0) {
    --argc;
    meth = *argv++;
    }
    return rb_enumeratorize(obj, meth, argc, argv);
}

- (String) to_s

Returns a string representing obj. The default to_s prints the object's class and an encoding of the object id. As a special case, the top-level object that is the initial execution context of Ruby programs returns "main.''

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.to_s    => string
 *  
 *  Returns a string representing <i>obj</i>. The default
 *  <code>to_s</code> prints the object's class and an encoding of the
 *  object id. As a special case, the top-level object that is the
 *  initial execution context of Ruby programs returns ``main.''
 */

VALUE
rb_any_to_s(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    const char *cname = rb_obj_classname(obj);
    size_t len;
    VALUE str;

    len = strlen(cname)+6+16;
    str = rb_str_new(0, len); /* 6:tags 16:addr */
    snprintf(RSTRING(str)->ptr, len+1, "#<%s:0x%lx>", cname, obj);
    RSTRING(str)->len = strlen(RSTRING(str)->ptr);
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(obj)) OBJ_TAINT(str);

    return str;
}

- (Class) type

Deprecated synonym for Object#class.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.type   => class
 *  
 *  Deprecated synonym for <code>Object#class</code>.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_type(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    rb_warn("Object#type is deprecated; use Object#class");
    return rb_class_real(CLASS_OF(obj));
}

- (Object) untaint

Removes the taint from obj.

Returns:



# File 'object.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     obj.untaint    => obj
 *  
 *  Removes the taint from <i>obj</i>.
 */

VALUE
rb_obj_untaint(obj)
    VALUE obj;
{
    rb_secure(3);
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(obj)) {
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) {
        rb_error_frozen("object");
    }
    FL_UNSET(obj, FL_TAINT);
    }
    return obj;
}