Class: Readability::Document

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/readability.rb

Constant Summary collapse

DEFAULT_OPTIONS =
{
  :retry_length               => 250,
  :min_text_length            => 25,
  :remove_unlikely_candidates => true,
  :weight_classes             => true,
  :clean_conditionally        => true,
  :remove_empty_nodes         => true,
  :min_image_width            => 130,
  :min_image_height           => 80,
  :ignore_image_format        => [],
  :blacklist                  => nil,
  :whitelist                  => nil
}.freeze
REGEXES =
{
    :unlikelyCandidatesRe => /combx|comment|community|disqus|extra|foot|header|menu|remark|rss|shoutbox|sidebar|sponsor|ad-break|agegate|pagination|pager|popup/i,
    :okMaybeItsACandidateRe => /and|article|body|column|main|shadow/i,
    :positiveRe => /article|body|content|entry|hentry|main|page|pagination|post|text|blog|story/i,
    :negativeRe => /combx|comment|com-|contact|foot|footer|footnote|masthead|media|meta|outbrain|promo|related|scroll|shoutbox|sidebar|sponsor|shopping|tags|tool|widget/i,
    :divToPElementsRe => /<(a|blockquote|dl|div|img|ol|p|pre|table|ul)/i,
    :replaceBrsRe => /(<br[^>]*>[ \n\r\t]*){2,}/i,
    :replaceFontsRe => /<(\/?)font[^>]*>/i,
    :trimRe => /^\s+|\s+$/,
    :normalizeRe => /\s{2,}/,
    :killBreaksRe => /(<br\s*\/?>(\s|&nbsp;?)*){1,}/,
    :videoRe => /http:\/\/(www\.)?(youtube|vimeo)\.com/i
}
ELEMENT_SCORES =
{
  'div' => 5,
  'blockquote' => 3,
  'form' => -3,
  'th' => -5
}.freeze

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(input, options = {}) ⇒ Document


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 39

def initialize(input, options = {})
  @options = DEFAULT_OPTIONS.merge(options)
  @input = input

  if RUBY_VERSION =~ /^(1\.9|2)/ && !@options[:encoding]
    @input = GuessHtmlEncoding.encode(@input, @options[:html_headers]) unless @options[:do_not_guess_encoding]
    @options[:encoding] = @input.encoding.to_s
  end

  @input = @input.gsub(REGEXES[:replaceBrsRe], '</p><p>').gsub(REGEXES[:replaceFontsRe], '<\1span>')
  @remove_unlikely_candidates = @options[:remove_unlikely_candidates]
  @weight_classes = @options[:weight_classes]
  @clean_conditionally = @options[:clean_conditionally]
  @best_candidate_has_image = true
  make_html
  handle_exclusions!(@options[:whitelist], @options[:blacklist])
end

Instance Attribute Details

#best_candidateObject

Returns the value of attribute best_candidate


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 37

def best_candidate
  @best_candidate
end

#best_candidate_has_imageObject

Returns the value of attribute best_candidate_has_image


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 37

def best_candidate_has_image
  @best_candidate_has_image
end

#candidatesObject

Returns the value of attribute candidates


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 37

def candidates
  @candidates
end

#htmlObject

Returns the value of attribute html


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 37

def html
  @html
end

#optionsObject

Returns the value of attribute options


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 37

def options
  @options
end

Instance Method Details

#authorObject

Look through the @html document looking for the author Precedence Information here on the wiki: (TODO attach wiki URL if it is accepted) Returns nil if no author is detected


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 194

def author
  # Let's grab this author:
  # <meta name="dc.creator" content="Finch - http://www.getfinch.com" />
  author_elements = @html.xpath('//meta[@name = "dc.creator"]')
  unless author_elements.empty?
    author_elements.each do |element|
      return element['content'].strip if element['content']
    end
  end

  # Now let's try to grab this
  # <span class="byline author vcard"><span>By</span><cite class="fn">Austin Fonacier</cite></span>
  # <div class="author">By</div><div class="author vcard"><a class="url fn" href="http://austinlivesinyoapp.com/">Austin Fonacier</a></div>
  author_elements = @html.xpath('//*[contains(@class, "vcard")]//*[contains(@class, "fn")]')
  unless author_elements.empty?
    author_elements.each do |element|
      return element.text.strip if element.text
    end
  end

  # Now let's try to grab this
  # <a rel="author" href="http://dbanksdesign.com">Danny Banks (rel)</a>
  # TODO: strip out the (rel)?
  author_elements = @html.xpath('//a[@rel = "author"]')
  unless author_elements.empty?
    author_elements.each do |element|
      return element.text.strip if element.text
    end
  end

  author_elements = @html.xpath('//*[@id = "author"]')
  unless author_elements.empty?
    author_elements.each do |element|
      return element.text.strip if element.text
    end
  end
end

#class_weight(e) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 341

def class_weight(e)
  weight = 0
  return weight unless @weight_classes

  if e[:class] && e[:class] != ""
    weight -= 25 if e[:class] =~ REGEXES[:negativeRe]
    weight += 25 if e[:class] =~ REGEXES[:positiveRe]
  end

  if e[:id] && e[:id] != ""
    weight -= 25 if e[:id] =~ REGEXES[:negativeRe]
    weight += 25 if e[:id] =~ REGEXES[:positiveRe]
  end

  weight
end

#clean_conditionally(node, candidates, selector) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 466

def clean_conditionally(node, candidates, selector)
  return unless @clean_conditionally
  node.css(selector).each do |el|
    weight = class_weight(el)
    content_score = candidates[el] ? candidates[el][:content_score] : 0
    name = el.name.downcase
    
    if weight + content_score < 0
      el.remove
      debug("Conditionally cleaned #{name}##{el[:id]}.#{el[:class]} with weight #{weight} and content score #{content_score} because score + content score was less than zero.")
    elsif el.text.count(",") < 10
      counts = %w[p img li a embed input].inject({}) { |m, kind| m[kind] = el.css(kind).length; m }
      counts["li"] -= 100

      # For every img under a noscript tag discount one from the count to avoid double counting
      counts["img"] -= el.css("noscript").css("img").length
            
      content_length = el.text.strip.length  # Count the text length excluding any surrounding whitespace
      link_density = get_link_density(el)

      reason = clean_conditionally_reason?(name, counts, content_length, options, weight, link_density)
      if reason
        debug("Conditionally cleaned #{name}##{el[:id]}.#{el[:class]} with weight #{weight} and content score #{content_score} because it has #{reason}.")
        el.remove
      end
    end
  end
end

#clean_conditionally_reason?(name, counts, content_length, options, weight, link_density) ⇒ Boolean


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 495

def clean_conditionally_reason?(name, counts, content_length, options, weight, link_density)
  if (counts["img"] > counts["p"]) && (counts["img"] > 1)
    "too many images"
  elsif counts["li"] > counts["p"] && name != "ul" && name != "ol"
    "more <li>s than <p>s"
  elsif counts["input"] > (counts["p"] / 3).to_i
    "less than 3x <p>s than <input>s"
  elsif (content_length < options[:min_text_length]) && (counts["img"] != 1)
    "too short a content length without a single image"
  elsif weight < 25 && link_density > 0.2
    "too many links for its weight (#{weight})"
  elsif weight >= 25 && link_density > 0.5
    "too many links for its weight (#{weight})"
  elsif (counts["embed"] == 1 && content_length < 75) || counts["embed"] > 1
    "<embed>s with too short a content length, or too many <embed>s"
  else
    nil
  end
end

#content(remove_unlikely_candidates = :default) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 232

def content(remove_unlikely_candidates = :default)
  @remove_unlikely_candidates = false if remove_unlikely_candidates == false

  prepare_candidates
  article = get_article(@candidates, @best_candidate)

  cleaned_article = sanitize(article, @candidates, options)
  if article.text.strip.length < options[:retry_length]
    if @remove_unlikely_candidates
      @remove_unlikely_candidates = false
    elsif @weight_classes
      @weight_classes = false
    elsif @clean_conditionally
      @clean_conditionally = false
    else
      # nothing we can do
      return cleaned_article
    end

    make_html
    content
  else
    cleaned_article
  end
end

#debug(str) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 371

def debug(str)
  puts str if options[:debug]
end

#get_article(candidates, best_candidate) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 258

def get_article(candidates, best_candidate)
  # Now that we have the top candidate, look through its siblings for content that might also be related.
  # Things like preambles, content split by ads that we removed, etc.

  sibling_score_threshold = [10, best_candidate[:content_score] * 0.2].max
  output = Nokogiri::XML::Node.new('div', @html)
  best_candidate[:elem].parent.children.each do |sibling|
    append = false
    append = true if sibling == best_candidate[:elem]
    append = true if candidates[sibling] && candidates[sibling][:content_score] >= sibling_score_threshold

    if sibling.name.downcase == "p"
      link_density = get_link_density(sibling)
      node_content = sibling.text
      node_length = node_content.length

      append = if node_length > 80 && link_density < 0.25
        true
      elsif node_length < 80 && link_density == 0 && node_content =~ /\.( |$)/
        true
      end
    end

    if append
      sibling_dup = sibling.dup # otherwise the state of the document in processing will change, thus creating side effects
      sibling_dup.name = "div" unless %w[div p].include?(sibling.name.downcase)
      output << sibling_dup
    end
  end

  output
end

#get_image_size(url) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 172

def get_image_size(url)
  w, h = FastImage.size(url)
  raise "Couldn't get size." if w.nil? || h.nil?
  {:width => w, :height => h}
rescue => e
  debug("Image error: #{e}")
  nil
end

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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 305

def get_link_density(elem)
  link_length = elem.css("a").map(&:text).join("").length
  text_length = elem.text.length
  link_length / text_length.to_f
end

#handle_exclusions!(whitelist, blacklist) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 66

def handle_exclusions!(whitelist, blacklist)
  return unless whitelist || blacklist

  if blacklist
    elems = @html.css(blacklist)
    if elems
      elems.each do |e|
        e.remove
      end
    end
  end

  if whitelist
    elems = @html.css(whitelist).to_s

    if body = @html.at_css('body')
      body.inner_html = elems
    end
  end

  @input = @html.to_s
end

#image_meets_criteria?(image) ⇒ Boolean


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 181

def image_meets_criteria?(image)
  return false if options[:ignore_image_format].include?(image[:format].downcase)
  image[:width] >= (options[:min_image_width] || 0) && image[:height] >= (options[:min_image_height] || 0)
end

#images(content = nil, reload = false) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 98

def images(content=nil, reload=false)
  begin
    require 'fastimage'
  rescue LoadError
    raise "Please install fastimage in order to use the #images feature."
  end

  @best_candidate_has_image = false if reload

  prepare_candidates
  list_images   = []
  tested_images = []
  content       = @best_candidate[:elem] unless reload

  return list_images if content.nil?
  elements = content.css("img").map(&:attributes)

    elements.each do |element|
      next unless element["src"]

      url     = element["src"].value
      height  = element["height"].nil?  ? 0 : element["height"].value.to_i
      width   = element["width"].nil?   ? 0 : element["width"].value.to_i

      if url =~ /\Ahttps?:\/\//i && (height.zero? || width.zero?)
        image   = get_image_size(url)
        next unless image
      else
        image = {:width => width, :height => height}
      end

      image[:format] = File.extname(url).gsub(".", "")

      if tested_images.include?(url)
        debug("Image was tested: #{url}")
        next
      end

      tested_images.push(url)
      if image_meets_criteria?(image)
        list_images << url
      else
        debug("Image discarded: #{url} - height: #{image[:height]} - width: #{image[:width]} - format: #{image[:format]}")
      end
    end

  (list_images.empty? and content != @html) ? images(@html, true) : list_images
end

#images_with_fqdn_uris(document = @html.dup, source_uri) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 151

def images_with_fqdn_uris(document = @html.dup, source_uri)
  uri = URI.parse(source_uri)
  host = uri.host
  scheme = uri.scheme
  port = uri.port # defaults to 80

  base = "#{scheme}://#{host}:#{port}/"

  images = []
  document.css("img").each do |elem|
    begin
      elem['src'] = URI.join(base,elem['src']).to_s if URI.parse(elem['src']).host == nil 
      images << elem['src'].to_s
    rescue URI::InvalidURIError => exc
      elem.remove
    end
  end

  images(document,true)
end

#images_with_fqdn_uris!(source_uri) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 147

def images_with_fqdn_uris!(source_uri)
  images_with_fqdn_uris(@html, source_uri)
end

#make_html(whitelist = nil, blacklist = nil) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 89

def make_html(whitelist=nil, blacklist=nil)
  @html = Nokogiri::HTML(@input, nil, @options[:encoding])
  # In case document has no body, such as from empty string or redirect
  @html = Nokogiri::HTML('<body />', nil, @options[:encoding]) if @html.css('body').length == 0

  # Remove html comment tags
  @html.xpath('//comment()').each { |i| i.remove }
end

#prepare_candidatesObject


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 57

def prepare_candidates
  @html.css("script, style").each { |i| i.remove }
  remove_unlikely_candidates! if @remove_unlikely_candidates
  transform_misused_divs_into_paragraphs!

  @candidates     = score_paragraphs(options[:min_text_length])
  @best_candidate = select_best_candidate(@candidates)
end

#remove_unlikely_candidates!Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 375

def remove_unlikely_candidates!
  @html.css("*").each do |elem|
    str = "#{elem[:class]}#{elem[:id]}"
    if str =~ REGEXES[:unlikelyCandidatesRe] && str !~ REGEXES[:okMaybeItsACandidateRe] && (elem.name.downcase != 'html') && (elem.name.downcase != 'body')
      debug("Removing unlikely candidate - #{str}")
      elem.remove
    end
  end
end

#sanitize(node, candidates, options = {}) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 405

def sanitize(node, candidates, options = {})
  node.css("h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6").each do |header|
    header.remove if class_weight(header) < 0 || get_link_density(header) > 0.33
  end

  node.css("form, object, iframe, embed").each do |elem|
    elem.remove
  end

  if @options[:remove_empty_nodes]
    # remove <p> tags that have no text content - this will also remove p tags that contain only images.
    node.css("p").each do |elem|
      elem.remove if elem.content.strip.empty?
    end
  end

  # Conditionally clean <table>s, <ul>s, and <div>s
  clean_conditionally(node, candidates, "table, ul, div")

  # We'll sanitize all elements using a whitelist
  base_whitelist = @options[:tags] || %w[div p]
  # We'll add whitespace instead of block elements,
  # so a<br>b will have a nice space between them
  base_replace_with_whitespace = %w[br hr h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 dl dd ol li ul address blockquote center]

  # Use a hash for speed (don't want to make a million calls to include?)
  whitelist = Hash.new
  base_whitelist.each {|tag| whitelist[tag] = true }
  replace_with_whitespace = Hash.new
  base_replace_with_whitespace.each { |tag| replace_with_whitespace[tag] = true }

  ([node] + node.css("*")).each do |el|
    # If element is in whitelist, delete all its attributes
    if whitelist[el.node_name]
      el.attributes.each { |a, x| el.delete(a) unless @options[:attributes] && @options[:attributes].include?(a.to_s) }

      # Otherwise, replace the element with its contents
    else
      # If element is root, replace the node as a text node
      if el.parent.nil?
        node = Nokogiri::XML::Text.new(el.text, el.document)
        break
      else
        if replace_with_whitespace[el.node_name]
          el.swap(Nokogiri::XML::Text.new(' ' << el.text << ' ', el.document))
        else
          el.swap(Nokogiri::XML::Text.new(el.text, el.document))
        end
      end
    end

  end

  s = Nokogiri::XML::Node::SaveOptions
  save_opts = s::NO_DECLARATION | s::NO_EMPTY_TAGS | s::AS_XHTML
  html = node.serialize(:save_with => save_opts)

  # Get rid of duplicate whitespace
  return html.gsub(/[\r\n\f]+/, "\n" )
end

#score_node(elem) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 365

def score_node(elem)
  content_score = class_weight(elem)
  content_score += ELEMENT_SCORES.fetch(elem.name.downcase, 0)
  { :content_score => content_score, :elem => elem }
end

#score_paragraphs(min_text_length) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 311

def score_paragraphs(min_text_length)
  candidates = {}
  @html.css("p,td").each do |elem|
    parent_node = elem.parent
    grand_parent_node = parent_node.respond_to?(:parent) ? parent_node.parent : nil
    inner_text = elem.text

    # If this paragraph is less than 25 characters, don't even count it.
    next if inner_text.length < min_text_length

    candidates[parent_node] ||= score_node(parent_node)
    candidates[grand_parent_node] ||= score_node(grand_parent_node) if grand_parent_node

    content_score = 1
    content_score += inner_text.split(',').length
    content_score += [(inner_text.length / 100).to_i, 3].min

    candidates[parent_node][:content_score] += content_score
    candidates[grand_parent_node][:content_score] += content_score / 2.0 if grand_parent_node
  end

  # Scale the final candidates score based on link density. Good content should have a
  # relatively small link density (5% or less) and be mostly unaffected by this operation.
  candidates.each do |elem, candidate|
    candidate[:content_score] = candidate[:content_score] * (1 - get_link_density(elem))
  end

  candidates
end

#select_best_candidate(candidates) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 291

def select_best_candidate(candidates)
  sorted_candidates = candidates.values.sort { |a, b| b[:content_score] <=> a[:content_score] }

  debug("Top 5 candidates:")
  sorted_candidates[0...5].each do |candidate|
    debug("Candidate #{candidate[:elem].name}##{candidate[:elem][:id]}.#{candidate[:elem][:class]} with score #{candidate[:content_score]}")
  end

  best_candidate = sorted_candidates.first || { :elem => @html.css("body").first, :content_score => 0 }
  debug("Best candidate #{best_candidate[:elem].name}##{best_candidate[:elem][:id]}.#{best_candidate[:elem][:class]} with score #{best_candidate[:content_score]}")

  best_candidate
end

#titleObject


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 186

def title
  title = @html.css("title").first
  title ? title.text : nil
end

#transform_misused_divs_into_paragraphs!Object


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# File 'lib/readability.rb', line 385

def transform_misused_divs_into_paragraphs!
  @html.css("*").each do |elem|
    if elem.name.downcase == "div"
      # transform <div>s that do not contain other block elements into <p>s
      if elem.inner_html !~ REGEXES[:divToPElementsRe]
        debug("Altering div(##{elem[:id]}.#{elem[:class]}) to p");
        elem.name = "p"
      end
    else
      # wrap text nodes in p tags
#          elem.children.each do |child|
#            if child.text?
#              debug("wrapping text node with a p")
#              child.swap("<p>#{child.text}</p>")
#            end
#          end
    end
  end
end