Class: Grape::Entity

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/grape_entity/entity.rb,
lib/grape_entity/options.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure.rb,
lib/grape_entity/condition.rb,
lib/grape_entity/delegator.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/base.rb,
lib/grape_entity/condition/base.rb,
lib/grape_entity/delegator/base.rb,
lib/grape_entity/delegator/hash_object.rb,
lib/grape_entity/delegator/plain_object.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/block_exposure.rb,
lib/grape_entity/condition/hash_condition.rb,
lib/grape_entity/condition/block_condition.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/nesting_exposure.rb,
lib/grape_entity/condition/symbol_condition.rb,
lib/grape_entity/delegator/fetchable_object.rb,
lib/grape_entity/delegator/openstruct_object.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/delegator_exposure.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/formatter_exposure.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/represent_exposure.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/formatter_block_exposure.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/nesting_exposure/output_builder.rb,
lib/grape_entity/exposure/nesting_exposure/nested_exposures.rb

Overview

An Entity is a lightweight structure that allows you to easily represent data from your application in a consistent and abstracted way in your API. Entities can also provide documentation for the fields exposed.

Entities are not independent structures, rather, they create representations of other Ruby objects using a number of methods that are convenient for use in an API. Once you've defined an Entity, you can use it in your API like this:

Examples:

Entity Definition


module API
  module Entities
    class User < Grape::Entity
      expose :first_name, :last_name, :screen_name, :location
      expose :field, documentation: { type: "string", desc: "describe the field" }
      expose :latest_status, using: API::Status, as: :status, unless: { collection: true }
      expose :email, if: { type: :full }
      expose :new_attribute, if: { version: 'v2' }
      expose(:name) { |model, options| [model.first_name, model.last_name].join(' ') }
    end
  end
end

Usage in the API Layer


module API
  class Users < Grape::API
    version 'v2'

    desc 'User index', { params: API::Entities::User.documentation }
    get '/users' do
      @users = User.all
      type = current_user.admin? ? :full : :default
      present @users, with: API::Entities::User, type: type
    end
  end
end

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: Condition, DSL, Delegator, Exposure Classes: Options

Constant Summary collapse

OPTIONS =

All supported options.

%i[
  rewrite
  as
  if
  unless
  using
  with
  proc
  documentation
  format_with
  safe
  attr_path
  if_extras
  unless_extras
  merge
  expose_nil
  override
].to_set.freeze

Class Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(object, options = {}) ⇒ Entity

Returns a new instance of Entity.


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 480

def initialize(object, options = {})
  @object = object
  @options = options.is_a?(Options) ? options : Options.new(options)
  @delegator = Delegator.new(object)

  # Why not `arity > 1`? It might be negative https://ruby-doc.org/core-2.6.6/Method.html#method-i-arity
  @delegator_accepts_opts = @delegator.method(:delegate).arity != 1
end

Class Attribute Details

.formattersHash

Returns all formatters that are registered for this and it's ancestors

Returns:

  • (Hash)

    of formatters


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 112

def formatters
  @formatters ||= {}
end

.root_exposureObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 104

def root_exposure
  @root_exposure ||= Exposure.new(nil, nesting: true)
end

Instance Attribute Details

#delegatorObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute delegator


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 47

def delegator
  @delegator
end

#objectObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 47

def object
  @object
end

#optionsObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute options


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 47

def options
  @options
end

Class Method Details

.build_exposure_for_attribute(attribute, nesting_stack, options, block) ⇒ Object

rubocop:enable Layout/LineLength


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 219

def self.build_exposure_for_attribute(attribute, nesting_stack, options, block)
  exposure_list = nesting_stack.empty? ? root_exposures : nesting_stack.last.nested_exposures

  exposure = Exposure.new(attribute, options)

  exposure_list.delete_by(attribute) if exposure.override?

  exposure_list << exposure

  # Nested exposures are given in a block with no parameters.
  return unless exposure.nesting?

  nesting_stack << exposure
  block.call
  nesting_stack.pop
end

.can_unexpose?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 258

def self.can_unexpose?
  (@nesting_stack ||= []).empty?
end

.cannot_unexpose!Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 262

def self.cannot_unexpose!
  raise "You cannot call 'unexpose` inside of nesting exposure!"
end

.delegation_optsObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 132

def delegation_opts
  @delegation_opts ||= { hash_access: hash_access }
end

.documentationObject

Returns a hash, the keys are symbolized references to fields in the entity, the values are document keys in the entity's documentation key. When calling

docmentation, any exposure without a documentation key will be ignored.


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 284

def self.documentation
  @documentation ||= root_exposures.each_with_object({}) do |exposure, memo|
    memo[exposure.key] = exposure.documentation if exposure.documentation && !exposure.documentation.empty?
  end
end

.expose(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

This method is the primary means by which you will declare what attributes should be exposed by the entity.

Note the parameters passed in via the lambda syntax.

rubocop:disable Layout/LineLength

Examples:

as: a proc or lambda


object = OpenStruct(awesomness: 'awesome_key', awesome: 'not-my-key', other: 'other-key' )

class MyEntity < Grape::Entity
  expose :awesome, as: proc { object.awesomeness }
  expose :awesomeness, as: ->(object, opts) { object.other }
end

=> { 'awesome_key': 'not-my-key', 'other-key': 'awesome_key' }

Parameters:

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 191

def self.expose(*args, &block)
  options = merge_options(args.last.is_a?(Hash) ? args.pop : {})

  if args.size > 1

    raise ArgumentError, 'You may not use the :as option on multi-attribute exposures.' if options[:as]
    raise ArgumentError, 'You may not use the :expose_nil on multi-attribute exposures.' if options.key?(:expose_nil)
    raise ArgumentError, 'You may not use block-setting on multi-attribute exposures.' if block_given?
  end

  if block_given?
    if options[:format_with].respond_to?(:call)
      raise ArgumentError, 'You may not use block-setting when also using format_with'
    end

    if block.parameters.any?
      options[:proc] = block
    else
      options[:nesting] = true
    end
  end

  @documentation = nil
  @nesting_stack ||= []
  args.each { |attribute| build_exposure_for_attribute(attribute, @nesting_stack, options, block) }
end

.find_exposure(attribute) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 242

def self.find_exposure(attribute)
  root_exposures.find_by(attribute)
end

.format_with(name, &block) ⇒ Object

This allows you to declare a Proc in which exposures can be formatted with. It take a block with an arity of 1 which is passed as the value of the exposed attribute.

Examples:

Formatter declaration


module API
  module Entities
    class User < Grape::Entity
      format_with :timestamp do |date|
        date.strftime('%m/%d/%Y')
      end

      expose :birthday, :last_signed_in, format_with: :timestamp
    end
  end
end

Formatters are available to all decendants


Grape::Entity.format_with :timestamp do |date|
  date.strftime('%m/%d/%Y')
end

Parameters:

  • name (Symbol)

    the name of the formatter

  • block (Proc)

    the block that will interpret the exposed attribute

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 316

def self.format_with(name, &block)
  raise ArgumentError, 'You must pass a block for formatters' unless block_given?

  formatters[name.to_sym] = block
end

.hash_accessObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 116

def hash_access
  @hash_access ||= :to_sym
end

.hash_access=(value) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 120

def hash_access=(value)
  @hash_access =
    case value
    when :to_s, :str, :string
      :to_s
    when :to_sym, :sym, :symbol
      :to_sym
    else
      :to_sym
    end
end

.inherited(subclass) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 139

def self.inherited(subclass)
  subclass.root_exposure = root_exposure.dup
  subclass.formatters = formatters.dup
end

.merge_options(options) ⇒ Object

Merges the given options with current block options.

Parameters:

  • options (Hash)

    Exposure options.


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 588

def self.merge_options(options)
  opts = {}

  merge_logic = proc do |key, existing_val, new_val|
    if %i[if unless].include?(key)
      if existing_val.is_a?(Hash) && new_val.is_a?(Hash)
        existing_val.merge(new_val)
      elsif new_val.is_a?(Hash)
        (opts["#{key}_extras".to_sym] ||= []) << existing_val
        new_val
      else
        (opts["#{key}_extras".to_sym] ||= []) << new_val
        existing_val
      end
    else
      new_val
    end
  end

  @block_options ||= []
  opts.merge @block_options.inject({}) { |final, step|
    final.merge(step, &merge_logic)
  }.merge(valid_options(options), &merge_logic)
end

.present_collection(present_collection = false, collection_name = :items) ⇒ Object

This allows you to present a collection of objects.

When false (default) every object in a collection to present will be wrapped separately into an instance of your presenter.

Examples:

Entity Definition


module API
  module Entities
    class User < Grape::Entity
      expose :id
    end

    class Users < Grape::Entity
      present_collection true
      expose :items, as: 'users', using: API::Entities::User
      expose :version, documentation: { type: 'string',
                                        desc: 'actual api version',
                                        required: true }

      def version
        options[:version]
      end
    end
  end
end

Usage in the API Layer


module API
  class Users < Grape::API
    version 'v2'

    # this will render { "users" : [ { "id" : "1" }, { "id" : "2" } ], "version" : "v2" }
    get '/users' do
      @users = User.all
      present @users, with: API::Entities::Users
    end

    # this will render { "user" : { "id" : "1" } }
    get '/users/:id' do
      @user = User.find(params[:id])
      present @user, with: API::Entities::User
    end
  end
end

Parameters:

  • present_collection (true or false) (defaults to: false)

    when true all objects will be available as items in your presenter instead of wrapping each object in an instance of your presenter.

  • collection_name (Symbol) (defaults to: :items)

    the name of the collection accessor in your entity object. Default :items


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 417

def self.present_collection(present_collection = false, collection_name = :items)
  @present_collection = present_collection
  @collection_name = collection_name
end

.represent(objects, options = {}) ⇒ Object

This convenience method allows you to instantiate one or more entities by passing either a singular or collection of objects. Each object will be initialized with the same options. If an array of objects is passed in, an array of entities will be returned. If a single object is passed in, a single entity will be returned.

Parameters:

  • objects (Object or Array)

    One or more objects to be represented.

  • options (Hash) (defaults to: {})

    Options that will be passed through to each entity representation.

Options Hash (options):

  • :root (String or false)

    override the default root name set for the entity. Pass nil or false to represent the object or objects with no root name even if one is defined for the entity.

  • :serializable (true or false)

    when true a serializable Hash will be returned

  • :only (Array)

    all the fields that should be returned

  • :except (Array)

    all the fields that should not be returned


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 439

def self.represent(objects, options = {})
  @present_collection ||= nil
  if objects.respond_to?(:to_ary) && !@present_collection
    root_element = root_element(:collection_root)
    inner = objects.to_ary.map { |object| new(object, options.reverse_merge(collection: true)).presented }
  else
    objects = { @collection_name => objects } if @present_collection
    root_element = root_element(:root)
    inner = new(objects, options).presented
  end

  root_element = options[:root] if options.key?(:root)

  root_element ? { root_element => inner } : inner
end

.root(plural, singular = nil) ⇒ Object

This allows you to set a root element name for your representation.

Examples:

Entity Definition


module API
  module Entities
    class User < Grape::Entity
      root 'users', 'user'
      expose :id
    end
  end
end

Usage in the API Layer


module API
  class Users < Grape::API
    version 'v2'

    # this will render { "users" : [ { "id" : "1" }, { "id" : "2" } ] }
    get '/users' do
      @users = User.all
      present @users, with: API::Entities::User
    end

    # this will render { "user" : { "id" : "1" } }
    get '/users/:id' do
      @user = User.find(params[:id])
      present @user, with: API::Entities::User
    end
  end
end

Parameters:

  • plural (String)

    the root key to use when representing a collection of objects. If missing or nil, no root key will be used when representing collections of objects.

  • singular (String) (defaults to: nil)

    the root key to use when representing a single object. If missing or nil, no root key will be used when representing an individual object.


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 361

def self.root(plural, singular = nil)
  @collection_root = plural
  @root = singular
end

.root_element(root_type) ⇒ Object

This method returns the entity's root or collection root node, or its parent's

Parameters:

  • root_type:

    either :collection_root or just :root


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 457

def self.root_element(root_type)
  instance_variable = "@#{root_type}"
  if instance_variable_defined?(instance_variable) && instance_variable_get(instance_variable)
    instance_variable_get(instance_variable)
  elsif superclass.respond_to? :root_element
    superclass.root_element(root_type)
  end
end

.root_exposuresArray

Returns exposures that have been declared for this Entity on the top level.

Returns:

  • (Array)

    of exposures


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 238

def self.root_exposures
  root_exposure.nested_exposures
end

.unexpose(*attributes) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 246

def self.unexpose(*attributes)
  cannot_unexpose! unless can_unexpose?
  @documentation = nil
  root_exposures.delete_by(*attributes)
end

.unexpose_allObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 252

def self.unexpose_all
  cannot_unexpose! unless can_unexpose?
  @documentation = nil
  root_exposures.clear
end

.valid_options(options) ⇒ Object

Raises an error if the given options include unknown keys. Renames aliased options.

Parameters:

  • options (Hash)

    Exposure options.


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 617

def self.valid_options(options)
  options.each_key do |key|
    raise ArgumentError, "#{key.inspect} is not a valid option." unless OPTIONS.include?(key)
  end

  options[:using] = options.delete(:with) if options.key?(:with)
  options
end

.with_options(options) ⇒ Object

Set options that will be applied to any exposures declared inside the block.

Examples:

Multi-exposure if


class MyEntity < Grape::Entity
  with_options if: { awesome: true } do
    expose :awesome, :sweet
  end
end

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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 275

def self.with_options(options)
  (@block_options ||= []).push(valid_options(options))
  yield
  @block_options.pop
end

Instance Method Details

#delegate_attribute(attribute) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 536

def delegate_attribute(attribute)
  if is_defined_in_entity?(attribute)
    send(attribute)
  elsif @delegator_accepts_opts
    delegator.delegate(attribute, self.class.delegation_opts)
  else
    delegator.delegate(attribute)
  end
end

#documentationObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 497

def documentation
  self.class.documentation
end

#exec_with_attribute(attribute, &block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 528

def exec_with_attribute(attribute, &block)
  instance_exec(delegate_attribute(attribute), &block)
end

#exec_with_object(options, &block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 520

def exec_with_object(options, &block)
  if block.parameters.count == 1
    instance_exec(object, &block)
  else
    instance_exec(object, options, &block)
  end
end

#formattersObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 501

def formatters
  self.class.formatters
end

#inspectObject

Prevent default serialization of :options or :delegator.


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 475

def inspect
  fields = serializable_hash.map { |k, v| "#{k}=#{v}" }
  "#<#{self.class.name}:#{object_id} #{fields.join(' ')}>"
end

#is_defined_in_entity?(attribute) ⇒ Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 546

def is_defined_in_entity?(attribute)
  return false unless respond_to?(attribute, true)

  ancestors = self.class.ancestors
  ancestors.index(Grape::Entity) > ancestors.index(method(attribute).owner)
end

#presentedObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 466

def presented
  if options[:serializable]
    serializable_hash
  else
    self
  end
end

#root_exposureObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 493

def root_exposure
  self.class.root_exposure
end

#root_exposuresObject


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 489

def root_exposures
  self.class.root_exposures
end

#serializable_hash(runtime_options = {}) ⇒ Object Also known as: as_json

The serializable hash is the Entity's primary output. It is the transformed hash for the given data model and is used as the basis for serialization to JSON and other formats.

Parameters:

  • runtime_options (Hash) (defaults to: {})

    Any options you pass in here will be known to the entity representation, this is where you can trigger things from conditional options etc.


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 512

def serializable_hash(runtime_options = {})
  return nil if object.nil?

  opts = options.merge(runtime_options || {})

  root_exposure.serializable_value(self, opts)
end

#to_json(options = {}) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 555

def to_json(options = {})
  options = options.to_h if options&.respond_to?(:to_h)
  MultiJson.dump(serializable_hash(options))
end

#to_xml(options = {}) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 560

def to_xml(options = {})
  options = options.to_h if options&.respond_to?(:to_h)
  serializable_hash(options).to_xml(options)
end

#value_for(key, options = Options.new) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/grape_entity/entity.rb', line 532

def value_for(key, options = Options.new)
  root_exposure.valid_value_for(key, self, options)
end