Class: ActionCable::Channel::Base

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
Broadcasting, Callbacks, Naming, PeriodicTimers, Streams, ActiveSupport::Rescuable
Defined in:
actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb

Overview

The channel provides the basic structure of grouping behavior into logical units when communicating over the WebSocket connection. You can think of a channel like a form of controller, but one that's capable of pushing content to the subscriber in addition to simply responding to the subscriber's direct requests.

Channel instances are long-lived. A channel object will be instantiated when the cable consumer becomes a subscriber, and then lives until the consumer disconnects. This may be seconds, minutes, hours, or even days. That means you have to take special care not to do anything silly in a channel that would balloon its memory footprint or whatever. The references are forever, so they won't be released as is normally the case with a controller instance that gets thrown away after every request.

Long-lived channels (and connections) also mean you're responsible for ensuring that the data is fresh. If you hold a reference to a user record, but the name is changed while that reference is held, you may be sending stale data if you don't take precautions to avoid it.

The upside of long-lived channel instances is that you can use instance variables to keep reference to objects that future subscriber requests can interact with. Here's a quick example:

class ChatChannel < ApplicationCable::Channel
  def subscribed
    @room = Chat::Room[params[:room_number]]
  end

  def speak(data)
    @room.speak data, user: current_user
  end
end

The #speak action simply uses the Chat::Room object that was created when the channel was first subscribed to by the consumer when that subscriber wants to say something in the room.

Action processing

Unlike subclasses of ActionController::Base, channels do not follow a RESTful constraint form for their actions. Instead, Action Cable operates through a remote-procedure call model. You can declare any public method on the channel (optionally taking a data argument), and this method is automatically exposed as callable to the client.

Example:

class AppearanceChannel < ApplicationCable::Channel
  def subscribed
    @connection_token = generate_connection_token
  end

  def unsubscribed
    current_user.disappear @connection_token
  end

  def appear(data)
    current_user.appear @connection_token, on: data['appearing_on']
  end

  def away
    current_user.away @connection_token
  end

  private
    def generate_connection_token
      SecureRandom.hex(36)
    end
end

In this example, the subscribed and unsubscribed methods are not callable methods, as they were already declared in ActionCable::Channel::Base, but #appear and #away are. #generate_connection_token is also not callable, since it's a private method. You'll see that appear accepts a data parameter, which it then uses as part of its model call. #away does not, since it's simply a trigger action.

Also note that in this example, current_user is available because it was marked as an identifying attribute on the connection. All such identifiers will automatically create a delegation method of the same name on the channel instance.

Rejecting subscription requests

A channel can reject a subscription request in the #subscribed callback by invoking the #reject method:

class ChatChannel < ApplicationCable::Channel
  def subscribed
    @room = Chat::Room[params[:room_number]]
    reject unless current_user.can_access?(@room)
  end
end

In this example, the subscription will be rejected if the current_user does not have access to the chat room. On the client-side, the Channel#rejected callback will get invoked when the server rejects the subscription request.

Constant Summary

Constants included from ActiveSupport::Callbacks

ActiveSupport::Callbacks::CALLBACK_FILTER_TYPES

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Rescuable

#handler_for_rescue, #rescue_with_handler

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Concern

#append_features, #class_methods, extended, #included, #prepend_features, #prepended

Methods included from Streams

#stop_all_streams, #stop_stream_for, #stop_stream_from, #stream_for, #stream_from, #stream_or_reject_for

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Callbacks

#run_callbacks

Constructor Details

#initialize(connection, identifier, params = {}) ⇒ Base

Returns a new instance of Base.


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 144

def initialize(connection, identifier, params = {})
  @connection = connection
  @identifier = identifier
  @params     = params

  # When a channel is streaming via pubsub, we want to delay the confirmation
  # transmission until pubsub subscription is confirmed.
  #
  # The counter starts at 1 because it's awaiting a call to #subscribe_to_channel
  @defer_subscription_confirmation_counter = Concurrent::AtomicFixnum.new(1)

  @reject_subscription = nil
  @subscription_confirmation_sent = nil

  delegate_connection_identifiers
end

Instance Attribute Details

#connectionObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute connection


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 105

def connection
  @connection
end

#identifierObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute identifier


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 105

def identifier
  @identifier
end

#paramsObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute params


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 105

def params
  @params
end

Class Method Details

.action_methodsObject

A list of method names that should be considered actions. This includes all public instance methods on a channel, less any internal methods (defined on Base), adding back in any methods that are internal, but still exist on the class itself.

Returns

  • Set - A set of all methods that should be considered actions.


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 117

def action_methods
  @action_methods ||= begin
    # All public instance methods of this class, including ancestors
    methods = (public_instance_methods(true) -
      # Except for public instance methods of Base and its ancestors
      ActionCable::Channel::Base.public_instance_methods(true) +
      # Be sure to include shadowed public instance methods of this class
      public_instance_methods(false)).uniq.map(&:to_s)
    methods.to_set
  end
end

Instance Method Details

#perform_action(data) ⇒ Object

Extract the action name from the passed data and process it via the channel. The process will ensure that the action requested is a public method on the channel declared by the user (so not one of the callbacks like #subscribed).


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 164

def perform_action(data)
  action = extract_action(data)

  if processable_action?(action)
    payload = { channel_class: self.class.name, action: action, data: data }
    ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument("perform_action.action_cable", payload) do
      dispatch_action(action, data)
    end
  else
    logger.error "Unable to process #{action_signature(action, data)}"
  end
end

#subscribe_to_channelObject

This method is called after subscription has been added to the connection and confirms or rejects the subscription.


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 179

def subscribe_to_channel
  run_callbacks :subscribe do
    subscribed
  end

  reject_subscription if subscription_rejected?
  ensure_confirmation_sent
end

#unsubscribe_from_channelObject

Called by the cable connection when it's cut, so the channel has a chance to cleanup with callbacks. This method is not intended to be called directly by the user. Instead, overwrite the #unsubscribed callback.


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# File 'actioncable/lib/action_cable/channel/base.rb', line 190

def unsubscribe_from_channel # :nodoc:
  run_callbacks :unsubscribe do
    unsubscribed
  end
end