Class: ActiveRecord::Migration

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb,
activerecord/lib/active_record/migration/join_table.rb,
activerecord/lib/active_record/migration/compatibility.rb,
activerecord/lib/active_record/migration/command_recorder.rb

Overview

Active Record Migrations

Migrations can manage the evolution of a schema used by several physical databases. It's a solution to the common problem of adding a field to make a new feature work in your local database, but being unsure of how to push that change to other developers and to the production server. With migrations, you can describe the transformations in self-contained classes that can be checked into version control systems and executed against another database that might be one, two, or five versions behind.

Example of a simple migration:

class AddSsl < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def up
    add_column :accounts, :ssl_enabled, :boolean, default: true
  end

  def down
    remove_column :accounts, :ssl_enabled
  end
end

This migration will add a boolean flag to the accounts table and remove it if you're backing out of the migration. It shows how all migrations have two methods up and down that describes the transformations required to implement or remove the migration. These methods can consist of both the migration specific methods like add_column and remove_column, but may also contain regular Ruby code for generating data needed for the transformations.

Example of a more complex migration that also needs to initialize data:

class AddSystemSettings < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def up
    create_table :system_settings do |t|
      t.string  :name
      t.string  :label
      t.text    :value
      t.string  :type
      t.integer :position
    end

    SystemSetting.create  name:  'notice',
                          label: 'Use notice?',
                          value: 1
  end

  def down
    drop_table :system_settings
  end
end

This migration first adds the system_settings table, then creates the very first row in it using the Active Record model that relies on the table. It also uses the more advanced create_table syntax where you can specify a complete table schema in one block call.

Available transformations

Creation

  • create_join_table(table_1, table_2, options): Creates a join table having its name as the lexical order of the first two arguments. See ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#create_join_table for details.

  • create_table(name, options): Creates a table called name and makes the table object available to a block that can then add columns to it, following the same format as add_column. See example above. The options hash is for fragments like “DEFAULT CHARSET=UTF-8” that are appended to the create table definition.

  • add_column(table_name, column_name, type, options): Adds a new column to the table called table_name named column_name specified to be one of the following types: :string, :text, :integer, :float, :decimal, :datetime, :timestamp, :time, :date, :binary, :boolean. A default value can be specified by passing an options hash like { default: 11 }. Other options include :limit and :null (e.g. { limit: 50, null: false }) – see ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::TableDefinition#column for details.

  • add_foreign_key(from_table, to_table, options): Adds a new foreign key. from_table is the table with the key column, to_table contains the referenced primary key.

  • add_index(table_name, column_names, options): Adds a new index with the name of the column. Other options include :name, :unique (e.g. { name: 'users_name_index', unique: true }) and :order (e.g. { order: { name: :desc } }).

  • add_reference(:table_name, :reference_name): Adds a new column reference_name_id by default an integer. See ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#add_reference for details.

  • add_timestamps(table_name, options): Adds timestamps (created_at and updated_at) columns to table_name.

Modification

  • change_column(table_name, column_name, type, options): Changes the column to a different type using the same parameters as add_column.

  • change_column_default(table_name, column_name, default_or_changes): Sets a default value for column_name defined by default_or_changes on table_name. Passing a hash containing :from and :to as default_or_changes will make this change reversible in the migration.

  • change_column_null(table_name, column_name, null, default = nil): Sets or removes a NOT NULL constraint on column_name. The null flag indicates whether the value can be NULL. See ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#change_column_null for details.

  • change_table(name, options): Allows to make column alterations to the table called name. It makes the table object available to a block that can then add/remove columns, indexes or foreign keys to it.

  • rename_column(table_name, column_name, new_column_name): Renames a column but keeps the type and content.

  • rename_index(table_name, old_name, new_name): Renames an index.

  • rename_table(old_name, new_name): Renames the table called old_name to new_name.

Deletion

  • drop_table(name): Drops the table called name.

  • drop_join_table(table_1, table_2, options): Drops the join table specified by the given arguments.

  • remove_column(table_name, column_name, type, options): Removes the column named column_name from the table called table_name.

  • remove_columns(table_name, *column_names): Removes the given columns from the table definition.

  • remove_foreign_key(from_table, to_table = nil, **options): Removes the given foreign key from the table called table_name.

  • remove_index(table_name, column: column_names): Removes the index specified by column_names.

  • remove_index(table_name, name: index_name): Removes the index specified by index_name.

  • remove_reference(table_name, ref_name, options): Removes the reference(s) on table_name specified by ref_name.

  • remove_timestamps(table_name, options): Removes the timestamp columns (created_at and updated_at) from the table definition.

Irreversible transformations

Some transformations are destructive in a manner that cannot be reversed. Migrations of that kind should raise an ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration exception in their down method.

Running migrations from within Rails

The Rails package has several tools to help create and apply migrations.

To generate a new migration, you can use

bin/rails generate migration MyNewMigration

where MyNewMigration is the name of your migration. The generator will create an empty migration file timestamp_my_new_migration.rb in the db/migrate/ directory where timestamp is the UTC formatted date and time that the migration was generated.

There is a special syntactic shortcut to generate migrations that add fields to a table.

bin/rails generate migration add_fieldname_to_tablename fieldname:string

This will generate the file timestamp_add_fieldname_to_tablename.rb, which will look like this:

class AddFieldnameToTablename < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def change
    add_column :tablenames, :fieldname, :string
  end
end

To run migrations against the currently configured database, use bin/rails db:migrate. This will update the database by running all of the pending migrations, creating the schema_migrations table (see “About the schema_migrations table” section below) if missing. It will also invoke the db:schema:dump command, which will update your db/schema.rb file to match the structure of your database.

To roll the database back to a previous migration version, use bin/rails db:rollback VERSION=X where X is the version to which you wish to downgrade. Alternatively, you can also use the STEP option if you wish to rollback last few migrations. bin/rails db:rollback STEP=2 will rollback the latest two migrations.

If any of the migrations throw an ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration exception, that step will fail and you'll have some manual work to do.

More examples

Not all migrations change the schema. Some just fix the data:

class RemoveEmptyTags < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def up
    Tag.all.each { |tag| tag.destroy if tag.pages.empty? }
  end

  def down
    # not much we can do to restore deleted data
    raise ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration, "Can't recover the deleted tags"
  end
end

Others remove columns when they migrate up instead of down:

class RemoveUnnecessaryItemAttributes < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def up
    remove_column :items, :incomplete_items_count
    remove_column :items, :completed_items_count
  end

  def down
    add_column :items, :incomplete_items_count
    add_column :items, :completed_items_count
  end
end

And sometimes you need to do something in SQL not abstracted directly by migrations:

class MakeJoinUnique < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def up
    execute "ALTER TABLE `pages_linked_pages` ADD UNIQUE `page_id_linked_page_id` (`page_id`,`linked_page_id`)"
  end

  def down
    execute "ALTER TABLE `pages_linked_pages` DROP INDEX `page_id_linked_page_id`"
  end
end

Using a model after changing its table

Sometimes you'll want to add a column in a migration and populate it immediately after. In that case, you'll need to make a call to Base#reset_column_information in order to ensure that the model has the latest column data from after the new column was added. Example:

class AddPeopleSalary < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def up
    add_column :people, :salary, :integer
    Person.reset_column_information
    Person.all.each do |p|
      p.update_attribute :salary, SalaryCalculator.compute(p)
    end
  end
end

Controlling verbosity

By default, migrations will describe the actions they are taking, writing them to the console as they happen, along with benchmarks describing how long each step took.

You can quiet them down by setting ActiveRecord::Migration.verbose = false.

You can also insert your own messages and benchmarks by using the say_with_time method:

def up
  ...
  say_with_time "Updating salaries..." do
    Person.all.each do |p|
      p.update_attribute :salary, SalaryCalculator.compute(p)
    end
  end
  ...
end

The phrase “Updating salaries…” would then be printed, along with the benchmark for the block when the block completes.

Timestamped Migrations

By default, Rails generates migrations that look like:

20080717013526_your_migration_name.rb

The prefix is a generation timestamp (in UTC).

If you'd prefer to use numeric prefixes, you can turn timestamped migrations off by setting:

config.active_record.timestamped_migrations = false

In application.rb.

Reversible Migrations

Reversible migrations are migrations that know how to go down for you. You simply supply the up logic, and the Migration system figures out how to execute the down commands for you.

To define a reversible migration, define the change method in your migration like this:

class TenderloveMigration < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def change
    create_table(:horses) do |t|
      t.column :content, :text
      t.column :remind_at, :datetime
    end
  end
end

This migration will create the horses table for you on the way up, and automatically figure out how to drop the table on the way down.

Some commands cannot be reversed. If you care to define how to move up and down in these cases, you should define the up and down methods as before.

If a command cannot be reversed, an ActiveRecord::IrreversibleMigration exception will be raised when the migration is moving down.

For a list of commands that are reversible, please see ActiveRecord::Migration::CommandRecorder.

Transactional Migrations

If the database adapter supports DDL transactions, all migrations will automatically be wrapped in a transaction. There are queries that you can't execute inside a transaction though, and for these situations you can turn the automatic transactions off.

class ChangeEnum < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  disable_ddl_transaction!

  def up
    execute "ALTER TYPE model_size ADD VALUE 'new_value'"
  end
end

Remember that you can still open your own transactions, even if you are in a Migration with self.disable_ddl_transaction!.

Direct Known Subclasses

Current

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: Compatibility, JoinTable Classes: CheckPending, CommandRecorder, Current, ReversibleBlockHelper

Constant Summary collapse

MigrationFilenameRegexp =

:nodoc:

/\A([0-9]+)_([_a-z0-9]*)\.?([_a-z0-9]*)?\.rb\z/

Class Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(name = self.class.name, version = nil) ⇒ Migration

Returns a new instance of Migration.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 665

def initialize(name = self.class.name, version = nil)
  @name       = name
  @version    = version
  @connection = nil
end

Dynamic Method Handling

This class handles dynamic methods through the method_missing method

#method_missing(method, *arguments, &block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 898

def method_missing(method, *arguments, &block)
  arg_list = arguments.map(&:inspect) * ", "

  say_with_time "#{method}(#{arg_list})" do
    unless connection.respond_to? :revert
      unless arguments.empty? || [:execute, :enable_extension, :disable_extension].include?(method)
        arguments[0] = proper_table_name(arguments.first, table_name_options)
        if [:rename_table, :add_foreign_key].include?(method) ||
          (method == :remove_foreign_key && !arguments.second.is_a?(Hash))
          arguments[1] = proper_table_name(arguments.second, table_name_options)
        end
      end
    end
    return super unless connection.respond_to?(method)
    connection.send(method, *arguments, &block)
  end
end

Class Attribute Details

.delegateObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 599

def delegate
  @delegate
end

.disable_ddl_transactionObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 600

def disable_ddl_transaction
  @disable_ddl_transaction
end

Instance Attribute Details

#nameObject

Returns the value of attribute name


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 663

def name
  @name
end

#versionObject

Returns the value of attribute version


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 663

def version
  @version
end

Class Method Details

.[](version) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 549

def self.[](version)
  Compatibility.find(version)
end

.check_pending!(connection = Base.connection) ⇒ Object

Raises ActiveRecord::PendingMigrationError error if any migrations are pending.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 607

def check_pending!(connection = Base.connection)
  raise ActiveRecord::PendingMigrationError if connection.migration_context.needs_migration?
end

.current_versionObject


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 553

def self.current_version
  ActiveRecord::VERSION::STRING.to_f
end

.disable_ddl_transaction!Object

Disable the transaction wrapping this migration. You can still create your own transactions even after calling #disable_ddl_transaction!

For more details read the “Transactional Migrations” section above.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 653

def disable_ddl_transaction!
  @disable_ddl_transaction = true
end

.inherited(subclass) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 539

def self.inherited(subclass) #:nodoc:
  super
  if subclass.superclass == Migration
    raise StandardError, "Directly inheriting from ActiveRecord::Migration is not supported. " \
      "Please specify the Rails release the migration was written for:\n" \
      "\n" \
      "  class #{subclass} < ActiveRecord::Migration[4.2]"
  end
end

.load_schema_if_pending!Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 611

def load_schema_if_pending!
  current_db_config = Base.connection_db_config
  all_configs = ActiveRecord::Base.configurations.configs_for(env_name: Rails.env)

  needs_update = !all_configs.all? do |db_config|
    Tasks::DatabaseTasks.schema_up_to_date?(db_config, ActiveRecord::Base.schema_format)
  end

  if needs_update
    # Roundtrip to Rake to allow plugins to hook into database initialization.
    root = defined?(ENGINE_ROOT) ? ENGINE_ROOT : Rails.root
    FileUtils.cd(root) do
      Base.clear_all_connections!
      system("bin/rails db:test:prepare")
    end
  end

  # Establish a new connection, the old database may be gone (db:test:prepare uses purge)
  Base.establish_connection(current_db_config)

  check_pending!
end

.maintain_test_schema!Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 634

def maintain_test_schema! #:nodoc:
  if ActiveRecord::Base.maintain_test_schema
    suppress_messages { load_schema_if_pending! }
  end
end

.method_missing(name, *args, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 640

def method_missing(name, *args, &block) #:nodoc:
  nearest_delegate.send(name, *args, &block)
end

.migrate(direction) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 645

def migrate(direction)
  new.migrate direction
end

.nearest_delegateObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 602

def nearest_delegate #:nodoc:
  delegate || superclass.nearest_delegate
end

Instance Method Details

#announce(message) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 863

def announce(message)
  text = "#{version} #{name}: #{message}"
  length = [0, 75 - text.length].max
  write "== %s %s" % [text, "=" * length]
end

#connectionObject


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 894

def connection
  @connection || ActiveRecord::Base.connection
end

#copy(destination, sources, options = {}) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 917

def copy(destination, sources, options = {})
  copied = []
  schema_migration = options[:schema_migration] || ActiveRecord::SchemaMigration

  FileUtils.mkdir_p(destination) unless File.exist?(destination)

  destination_migrations = ActiveRecord::MigrationContext.new(destination, schema_migration).migrations
  last = destination_migrations.last
  sources.each do |scope, path|
    source_migrations = ActiveRecord::MigrationContext.new(path, schema_migration).migrations

    source_migrations.each do |migration|
      source = File.binread(migration.filename)
      inserted_comment = "# This migration comes from #{scope} (originally #{migration.version})\n"
      magic_comments = +""
      loop do
        # If we have a magic comment in the original migration,
        # insert our comment after the first newline(end of the magic comment line)
        # so the magic keep working.
        # Note that magic comments must be at the first line(except sh-bang).
        source.sub!(/\A(?:#.*\b(?:en)?coding:\s*\S+|#\s*frozen_string_literal:\s*(?:true|false)).*\n/) do |magic_comment|
          magic_comments << magic_comment; ""
        end || break
      end
      source = "#{magic_comments}#{inserted_comment}#{source}"

      if duplicate = destination_migrations.detect { |m| m.name == migration.name }
        if options[:on_skip] && duplicate.scope != scope.to_s
          options[:on_skip].call(scope, migration)
        end
        next
      end

      migration.version = next_migration_number(last ? last.version + 1 : 0).to_i
      new_path = File.join(destination, "#{migration.version}_#{migration.name.underscore}.#{scope}.rb")
      old_path, migration.filename = migration.filename, new_path
      last = migration

      File.binwrite(migration.filename, source)
      copied << migration
      options[:on_copy].call(scope, migration, old_path) if options[:on_copy]
      destination_migrations << migration
    end
  end

  copied
end

#disable_ddl_transactionObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 658

def disable_ddl_transaction #:nodoc:
  self.class.disable_ddl_transaction
end

#downObject


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 816

def down
  self.class.delegate = self
  return unless self.class.respond_to?(:down)
  self.class.down
end

#exec_migration(conn, direction) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 844

def exec_migration(conn, direction)
  @connection = conn
  if respond_to?(:change)
    if direction == :down
      revert { change }
    else
      change
    end
  else
    send(direction)
  end
ensure
  @connection = nil
end

#migrate(direction) ⇒ Object

Execute this migration in the named direction


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 823

def migrate(direction)
  return unless respond_to?(direction)

  case direction
  when :up   then announce "migrating"
  when :down then announce "reverting"
  end

  time = nil
  ActiveRecord::Base.connection_pool.with_connection do |conn|
    time = Benchmark.measure do
      exec_migration(conn, direction)
    end
  end

  case direction
  when :up   then announce "migrated (%.4fs)" % time.real; write
  when :down then announce "reverted (%.4fs)" % time.real; write
  end
end

#next_migration_number(number) ⇒ Object

Determines the version number of the next migration.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 977

def next_migration_number(number)
  if ActiveRecord::Base.timestamped_migrations
    [Time.now.utc.strftime("%Y%m%d%H%M%S"), "%.14d" % number].max
  else
    SchemaMigration.normalize_migration_number(number)
  end
end

#proper_table_name(name, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Finds the correct table name given an Active Record object. Uses the Active Record object's own table_name, or pre/suffix from the options passed in.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 968

def proper_table_name(name, options = {})
  if name.respond_to? :table_name
    name.table_name
  else
    "#{options[:table_name_prefix]}#{name}#{options[:table_name_suffix]}"
  end
end

#reversibleObject

Used to specify an operation that can be run in one direction or another. Call the methods up and down of the yielded object to run a block only in one given direction. The whole block will be called in the right order within the migration.

In the following example, the looping on users will always be done when the three columns 'first_name', 'last_name' and 'full_name' exist, even when migrating down:

class SplitNameMigration < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def change
    add_column :users, :first_name, :string
    add_column :users, :last_name, :string

    reversible do |dir|
      User.reset_column_information
      User.all.each do |u|
        dir.up   { u.first_name, u.last_name = u.full_name.split(' ') }
        dir.down { u.full_name = "#{u.first_name} #{u.last_name}" }
        u.save
      end
    end

    revert { add_column :users, :full_name, :string }
  end
end

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 769

def reversible
  helper = ReversibleBlockHelper.new(reverting?)
  execute_block { yield helper }
end

#revert(*migration_classes) ⇒ Object

Reverses the migration commands for the given block and the given migrations.

The following migration will remove the table 'horses' and create the table 'apples' on the way up, and the reverse on the way down.

class FixTLMigration < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def change
    revert do
      create_table(:horses) do |t|
        t.text :content
        t.datetime :remind_at
      end
    end
    create_table(:apples) do |t|
      t.string :variety
    end
  end
end

Or equivalently, if TenderloveMigration is defined as in the documentation for Migration:

require_relative "20121212123456_tenderlove_migration"

class FixupTLMigration < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def change
    revert TenderloveMigration

    create_table(:apples) do |t|
      t.string :variety
    end
  end
end

This command can be nested.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 712

def revert(*migration_classes)
  run(*migration_classes.reverse, revert: true) unless migration_classes.empty?
  if block_given?
    if connection.respond_to? :revert
      connection.revert { yield }
    else
      recorder = command_recorder
      @connection = recorder
      suppress_messages do
        connection.revert { yield }
      end
      @connection = recorder.delegate
      recorder.replay(self)
    end
  end
end

#reverting?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 729

def reverting?
  connection.respond_to?(:reverting) && connection.reverting
end

#run(*migration_classes) ⇒ Object

Runs the given migration classes. Last argument can specify options:

  • :direction (default is :up)

  • :revert (default is false)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 796

def run(*migration_classes)
  opts = migration_classes.extract_options!
  dir = opts[:direction] || :up
  dir = (dir == :down ? :up : :down) if opts[:revert]
  if reverting?
    # If in revert and going :up, say, we want to execute :down without reverting, so
    revert { run(*migration_classes, direction: dir, revert: true) }
  else
    migration_classes.each do |migration_class|
      migration_class.new.exec_migration(connection, dir)
    end
  end
end

#say(message, subitem = false) ⇒ Object

Takes a message argument and outputs it as is. A second boolean argument can be passed to specify whether to indent or not.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 871

def say(message, subitem = false)
  write "#{subitem ? "   ->" : "--"} #{message}"
end

#say_with_time(message) ⇒ Object

Outputs text along with how long it took to run its block. If the block returns an integer it assumes it is the number of rows affected.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 877

def say_with_time(message)
  say(message)
  result = nil
  time = Benchmark.measure { result = yield }
  say "%.4fs" % time.real, :subitem
  say("#{result} rows", :subitem) if result.is_a?(Integer)
  result
end

#suppress_messagesObject

Takes a block as an argument and suppresses any output generated by the block.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 887

def suppress_messages
  save, self.verbose = verbose, false
  yield
ensure
  self.verbose = save
end

#table_name_options(config = ActiveRecord::Base) ⇒ Object

Builds a hash for use in ActiveRecord::Migration#proper_table_name using the Active Record object's table_name prefix and suffix


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 987

def table_name_options(config = ActiveRecord::Base) #:nodoc:
  {
    table_name_prefix: config.table_name_prefix,
    table_name_suffix: config.table_name_suffix
  }
end

#upObject


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 810

def up
  self.class.delegate = self
  return unless self.class.respond_to?(:up)
  self.class.up
end

#up_onlyObject

Used to specify an operation that is only run when migrating up (for example, populating a new column with its initial values).

In the following example, the new column published will be given the value true for all existing records.

class AddPublishedToPosts < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def change
    add_column :posts, :published, :boolean, default: false
    up_only do
      execute "update posts set published = 'true'"
    end
  end
end

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 788

def up_only
  execute_block { yield } unless reverting?
end

#write(text = "") ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/migration.rb', line 859

def write(text = "")
  puts(text) if verbose
end