Class: Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb

Overview

Persistent connections for Net::HTTP

Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent maintains persistent connections across all the servers you wish to talk to. For each host:port you communicate with a single persistent connection is created.

Multiple Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent objects will share the same set of connections.

For each thread you start a new connection will be created. A Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent connection will not be shared across threads.

You can shut down the HTTP connections when done by calling #shutdown. You should name your Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent object if you intend to call this method.

Example:

require 'bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent'

uri = Bundler::URI 'http://example.com/awesome/web/service'

http = Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent.new name: 'my_app_name'

# perform a GET
response = http.request uri

# or

get = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri.request_uri
response = http.request get

# create a POST
post_uri = uri + 'create'
post = Net::HTTP::Post.new post_uri.path
post.set_form_data 'some' => 'cool data'

# perform the POST, the Bundler::URI is always required
response http.request post_uri, post

Note that for GET, HEAD and other requests that do not have a body you want to use Bundler::URI#request_uri not Bundler::URI#path. The request_uri contains the query params which are sent in the body for other requests.

SSL

SSL connections are automatically created depending upon the scheme of the Bundler::URI. SSL connections are automatically verified against the default certificate store for your computer. You can override this by changing verify_mode or by specifying an alternate cert_store.

Here are the SSL settings, see the individual methods for documentation:

#certificate

This client's certificate

#ca_file

The certificate-authorities

#ca_path

Directory with certificate-authorities

#cert_store

An SSL certificate store

#ciphers

List of SSl ciphers allowed

#private_key

The client's SSL private key

#reuse_ssl_sessions

Reuse a previously opened SSL session for a new connection

#ssl_timeout

SSL session lifetime

#ssl_version

Which specific SSL version to use

#verify_callback

For server certificate verification

#verify_depth

Depth of certificate verification

#verify_mode

How connections should be verified

Proxies

A proxy can be set through #proxy= or at initialization time by providing a second argument to ::new. The proxy may be the Bundler::URI of the proxy server or :ENV which will consult environment variables.

See #proxy= and #proxy_from_env for details.

Headers

Headers may be specified for use in every request. #headers are appended to any headers on the request. #override_headers replace existing headers on the request.

The difference between the two can be seen in setting the User-Agent. Using http.headers['User-Agent'] = 'MyUserAgent' will send “Ruby, MyUserAgent” while http.override_headers['User-Agent'] = 'MyUserAgent' will send “MyUserAgent”.

Tuning

Segregation

By providing an application name to ::new you can separate your connections from the connections of other applications.

Idle Timeout

If a connection hasn't been used for this number of seconds it will automatically be reset upon the next use to avoid attempting to send to a closed connection. The default value is 5 seconds. nil means no timeout. Set through #idle_timeout.

Reducing this value may help avoid the “too many connection resets” error when sending non-idempotent requests while increasing this value will cause fewer round-trips.

Read Timeout

The amount of time allowed between reading two chunks from the socket. Set through #read_timeout

Max Requests

The number of requests that should be made before opening a new connection. Typically many keep-alive capable servers tune this to 100 or less, so the 101st request will fail with ECONNRESET. If unset (default), this value has no effect, if set, connections will be reset on the request after max_requests.

Open Timeout

The amount of time to wait for a connection to be opened. Set through #open_timeout.

Socket Options

Socket options may be set on newly-created connections. See #socket_options for details.

Non-Idempotent Requests

By default non-idempotent requests will not be retried per RFC 2616. By setting retry_change_requests to true requests will automatically be retried once.

Only do this when you know that retrying a POST or other non-idempotent request is safe for your application and will not create duplicate resources.

The recommended way to handle non-idempotent requests is the following:

require 'bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent'

uri = Bundler::URI 'http://example.com/awesome/web/service'
post_uri = uri + 'create'

http = Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent.new name: 'my_app_name'

post = Net::HTTP::Post.new post_uri.path
# ... fill in POST request

begin
  response = http.request post_uri, post
rescue Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent::Error

  # POST failed, make a new request to verify the server did not process
  # the request
  exists_uri = uri + '...'
  response = http.get exists_uri

  # Retry if it failed
  retry if response.code == '404'
end

The method of determining if the resource was created or not is unique to the particular service you are using. Of course, you will want to add protection from infinite looping.

Connection Termination

If you are done using the Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent instance you may shut down all the connections in the current thread with #shutdown. This is not recommended for normal use, it should only be used when it will be several minutes before you make another HTTP request.

If you are using multiple threads, call #shutdown in each thread when the thread is done making requests. If you don't call shutdown, that's OK. Ruby will automatically garbage collect and shutdown your HTTP connections when the thread terminates.

Direct Known Subclasses

Bundler::PersistentHTTP

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: Connection, Error, Pool, TimedStackMulti

Constant Summary collapse

EPOCH =

The beginning of Time

Time.at 0
HAVE_OPENSSL =

Is OpenSSL available? This test works with autoload

defined? OpenSSL::SSL # :nodoc:
DEFAULT_POOL_SIZE =
Process.getrlimit(Process::RLIMIT_NOFILE).first / 4
VERSION =

The version of Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent you are using

'3.1.0'
RETRIED_EXCEPTIONS =

Exceptions rescued for automatic retry on ruby 2.0.0. This overlaps with the exception list for ruby 1.x.

[ # :nodoc:
  (Net::ReadTimeout if Net.const_defined? :ReadTimeout),
  IOError,
  EOFError,
  Errno::ECONNRESET,
  Errno::ECONNABORTED,
  Errno::EPIPE,
  (OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError if HAVE_OPENSSL),
  Timeout::Error,
].compact

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(name: nil, proxy: nil, pool_size: DEFAULT_POOL_SIZE) ⇒ Persistent

Creates a new Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent.

Set name to keep your connections apart from everybody else's. Not required currently, but highly recommended. Your library name should be good enough. This parameter will be required in a future version.

proxy may be set to a Bundler::URI::HTTP or :ENV to pick up proxy options from the environment. See proxy_from_env for details.

In order to use a Bundler::URI for the proxy you may need to do some extra work beyond Bundler::URI parsing if the proxy requires a password:

proxy = Bundler::URI 'http://proxy.example'
proxy.user     = 'AzureDiamond'
proxy.password = 'hunter2'

Set pool_size to limit the maximum number of connections allowed. Defaults to 1/4 the number of allowed file handles. You can have no more than this many threads with active HTTP transactions.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 525

def initialize name: nil, proxy: nil, pool_size: DEFAULT_POOL_SIZE
  @name = name

  @debug_output     = nil
  @proxy_uri        = nil
  @no_proxy         = []
  @headers          = {}
  @override_headers = {}
  @http_versions    = {}
  @keep_alive       = 30
  @open_timeout     = nil
  @read_timeout     = nil
  @write_timeout    = nil
  @idle_timeout     = 5
  @max_requests     = nil
  @socket_options   = []
  @ssl_generation   = 0 # incremented when SSL session variables change

  @socket_options << [Socket::IPPROTO_TCP, Socket::TCP_NODELAY, 1] if
    Socket.const_defined? :TCP_NODELAY

  @pool = Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent::Pool.new size: pool_size do |http_args|
    Bundler::Persistent::Net::HTTP::Persistent::Connection.new Net::HTTP, http_args, @ssl_generation
  end

  @certificate        = nil
  @ca_file            = nil
  @ca_path            = nil
  @ciphers            = nil
  @private_key        = nil
  @ssl_timeout        = nil
  @ssl_version        = nil
  @min_version        = nil
  @max_version        = nil
  @verify_callback    = nil
  @verify_depth       = nil
  @verify_mode        = nil
  @cert_store         = nil

  @generation         = 0 # incremented when proxy Bundler::URI changes

  if HAVE_OPENSSL then
    @verify_mode        = OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER
    @reuse_ssl_sessions = OpenSSL::SSL.const_defined? :Session
  end

  @retry_change_requests = false

  self.proxy = proxy if proxy
end

Instance Attribute Details

#ca_fileObject

An SSL certificate authority. Setting this will set verify_mode to VERIFY_PEER.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 296

def ca_file
  @ca_file
end

#ca_pathObject

A directory of SSL certificates to be used as certificate authorities. Setting this will set verify_mode to VERIFY_PEER.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 302

def ca_path
  @ca_path
end

#cert_storeObject

An SSL certificate store. Setting this will override the default certificate store. See verify_mode for more information.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 308

def cert_store
  @cert_store
end

#certificateObject Also known as: cert

This client's OpenSSL::X509::Certificate


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 285

def certificate
  @certificate
end

#ciphersObject

The ciphers allowed for SSL connections


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 313

def ciphers
  @ciphers
end

#debug_outputObject

Sends debug_output to this IO via Net::HTTP#set_debug_output.

Never use this method in production code, it causes a serious security hole.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 321

def debug_output
  @debug_output
end

#generationObject (readonly)

Current connection generation


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 326

def generation
  @generation
end

#headersObject (readonly)

Headers that are added to every request using Net::HTTP#add_field


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 331

def headers
  @headers
end

#http_versionsObject (readonly)

Maps host:port to an HTTP version. This allows us to enable version specific features.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 337

def http_versions
  @http_versions
end

#idle_timeoutObject

Maximum time an unused connection can remain idle before being automatically closed.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 343

def idle_timeout
  @idle_timeout
end

#keep_aliveObject

The value sent in the Keep-Alive header. Defaults to 30. Not needed for HTTP/1.1 servers.

This may not work correctly for HTTP/1.0 servers

This method may be removed in a future version as RFC 2616 does not require this header.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 360

def keep_alive
  @keep_alive
end

#max_requestsObject

Maximum number of requests on a connection before it is considered expired and automatically closed.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 349

def max_requests
  @max_requests
end

#max_versionObject

Maximum SSL version to use, e.g. :TLS1_2

By default, the version will be negotiated automatically between client and server. Ruby 2.5 and newer only.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 465

def max_version
  @max_version
end

#min_versionObject

Minimum SSL version to use, e.g. :TLS1_1

By default, the version will be negotiated automatically between client and server. Ruby 2.5 and newer only.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 457

def min_version
  @min_version
end

#nameObject (readonly)

A name for this connection. Allows you to keep your connections apart from everybody else's.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 366

def name
  @name
end

#no_proxyObject (readonly)

List of host suffixes which will not be proxied


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 396

def no_proxy
  @no_proxy
end

#open_timeoutObject

Seconds to wait until a connection is opened. See Net::HTTP#open_timeout


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 371

def open_timeout
  @open_timeout
end

#override_headersObject (readonly)

Headers that are added to every request using Net::HTTP#[]=


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 376

def override_headers
  @override_headers
end

#poolObject (readonly)

Test-only accessor for the connection pool


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 401

def pool
  @pool
end

#private_keyObject Also known as: key

This client's SSL private key


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 381

def private_key
  @private_key
end

#proxy_uriObject (readonly)

The URL through which requests will be proxied


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 391

def proxy_uri
  @proxy_uri
end

#read_timeoutObject

Seconds to wait until reading one block. See Net::HTTP#read_timeout


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 406

def read_timeout
  @read_timeout
end

#retry_change_requestsObject

Enable retries of non-idempotent requests that change data (e.g. POST requests) when the server has disconnected.

This will in the worst case lead to multiple requests with the same data, but it may be useful for some applications. Take care when enabling this option to ensure it is safe to POST or perform other non-idempotent requests to the server.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 502

def retry_change_requests
  @retry_change_requests
end

#reuse_ssl_sessionsObject

By default SSL sessions are reused to avoid extra SSL handshakes. Set this to false if you have problems communicating with an HTTPS server like:

SSL_connect [...] read finished A: unexpected message (OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError)

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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 420

def reuse_ssl_sessions
  @reuse_ssl_sessions
end

#socket_optionsObject (readonly)

An array of options for Socket#setsockopt.

By default the TCP_NODELAY option is set on sockets.

To set additional options append them to this array:

http.socket_options << [Socket::SOL_SOCKET, Socket::SO_KEEPALIVE, 1]

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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 431

def socket_options
  @socket_options
end

#ssl_generationObject (readonly)

Current SSL connection generation


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 436

def ssl_generation
  @ssl_generation
end

#ssl_timeoutObject

SSL session lifetime


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 441

def ssl_timeout
  @ssl_timeout
end

#ssl_versionObject

SSL version to use.

By default, the version will be negotiated automatically between client and server. Ruby 1.9 and newer only. Deprecated since Ruby 2.5.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 449

def ssl_version
  @ssl_version
end

#timeout_keyObject (readonly)

Where this instance's last-use times live in the thread local variables


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 470

def timeout_key
  @timeout_key
end

#verify_callbackObject

SSL verification callback. Used when ca_file or ca_path is set.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 475

def verify_callback
  @verify_callback
end

#verify_depthObject

Sets the depth of SSL certificate verification


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 480

def verify_depth
  @verify_depth
end

#verify_modeObject

HTTPS verify mode. Defaults to OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER which verifies the server certificate.

If no ca_file, ca_path or cert_store is set the default system certificate store is used.

You can use verify_mode to override any default values.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 491

def verify_mode
  @verify_mode
end

#write_timeoutObject

Seconds to wait until writing one block. See Net::HTTP#write_timeout


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 411

def write_timeout
  @write_timeout
end

Class Method Details

.detect_idle_timeout(uri, max = 10) ⇒ Object

Use this method to detect the idle timeout of the host at uri. The value returned can be used to configure #idle_timeout. max controls the maximum idle timeout to detect.

After

Idle timeout detection is performed by creating a connection then performing a HEAD request in a loop until the connection terminates waiting one additional second per loop.

NOTE: This may not work on ruby > 1.9.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 246

def self.detect_idle_timeout uri, max = 10
  uri = Bundler::URI uri unless Bundler::URI::Generic === uri
  uri += '/'

  req = Net::HTTP::Head.new uri.request_uri

  http = new 'net-http-persistent detect_idle_timeout'

  http.connection_for uri do |connection|
    sleep_time = 0

    http = connection.http

    loop do
      response = http.request req

      $stderr.puts "HEAD #{uri} => #{response.code}" if $DEBUG

      unless Net::HTTPOK === response then
        raise Error, "bad response code #{response.code} detecting idle timeout"
      end

      break if sleep_time >= max

      sleep_time += 1

      $stderr.puts "sleeping #{sleep_time}" if $DEBUG
      sleep sleep_time
    end
  end
rescue
  # ignore StandardErrors, we've probably found the idle timeout.
ensure
  return sleep_time unless $!
end

Instance Method Details

#can_retry?(req) ⇒ Boolean

Is the request req idempotent or is retry_change_requests allowed.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 760

def can_retry? req
  @retry_change_requests && !idempotent?(req)
end

#connection_for(uri) ⇒ Object

Creates a new connection for uri


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 628

def connection_for uri
  use_ssl = uri.scheme.downcase == 'https'

  net_http_args = [uri.hostname, uri.port]

  if @proxy_uri and not proxy_bypass? uri.hostname, uri.port then
    net_http_args.concat @proxy_args
  else
    net_http_args.concat [nil, nil, nil, nil]
  end

  connection = @pool.checkout net_http_args

  http = connection.http

  connection.ressl @ssl_generation if
    connection.ssl_generation != @ssl_generation

  if not http.started? then
    ssl   http if use_ssl
    start http
  elsif expired? connection then
    reset connection
  end

  http.read_timeout = @read_timeout if @read_timeout
  http.write_timeout = @write_timeout if @write_timeout && http.respond_to?(:write_timeout=)
  http.keep_alive_timeout = @idle_timeout if @idle_timeout

  return yield connection
rescue Errno::ECONNREFUSED
  address = http.proxy_address || http.address
  port    = http.proxy_port    || http.port

  raise Error, "connection refused: #{address}:#{port}"
rescue Errno::EHOSTDOWN
  address = http.proxy_address || http.address
  port    = http.proxy_port    || http.port

  raise Error, "host down: #{address}:#{port}"
ensure
  @pool.checkin net_http_args
end

#error_message(connection) ⇒ Object

Returns an error message containing the number of requests performed on this connection


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 676

def error_message connection
  connection.requests -= 1 # fixup

  age = Time.now - connection.last_use

  "after #{connection.requests} requests on #{connection.http.object_id}, " \
    "last used #{age} seconds ago"
end

#escape(str) ⇒ Object

Bundler::URI::escape wrapper


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 688

def escape str
  CGI.escape str if str
end

#expired?(connection) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the connection should be reset due to an idle timeout, or maximum request count, false otherwise.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 704

def expired? connection
  return true  if     @max_requests && connection.requests >= @max_requests
  return false unless @idle_timeout
  return true  if     @idle_timeout.zero?

  Time.now - connection.last_use > @idle_timeout
end

#finish(connection) ⇒ Object

Finishes the Net::HTTP connection


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 733

def finish connection
  connection.finish

  connection.http.instance_variable_set :@ssl_session, nil unless
    @reuse_ssl_sessions
end

#http_version(uri) ⇒ Object

Returns the HTTP protocol version for uri


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 743

def http_version uri
  @http_versions["#{uri.host}:#{uri.port}"]
end

#idempotent?(req) ⇒ Boolean

Is req idempotent according to RFC 2616?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 750

def idempotent? req
  case req.method
  when 'DELETE', 'GET', 'HEAD', 'OPTIONS', 'PUT', 'TRACE' then
    true
  end
end

#normalize_uri(uri) ⇒ Object

Adds “http://” to the String uri if it is missing.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 767

def normalize_uri uri
  (uri =~ /^https?:/) ? uri : "http://#{uri}"
end

#proxy=(proxy) ⇒ Object

Sets the proxy server. The proxy may be the Bundler::URI of the proxy server, the symbol :ENV which will read the proxy from the environment or nil to disable use of a proxy. See #proxy_from_env for details on setting the proxy from the environment.

If the proxy Bundler::URI is set after requests have been made, the next request will shut-down and re-open all connections.

The no_proxy query parameter can be used to specify hosts which shouldn't be reached via proxy; if set it should be a comma separated list of hostname suffixes, optionally with :port appended, for example example.com,some.host:8080.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 797

def proxy= proxy
  @proxy_uri = case proxy
               when :ENV      then proxy_from_env
               when Bundler::URI::HTTP then proxy
               when nil       then # ignore
               else raise ArgumentError, 'proxy must be :ENV or a Bundler::URI::HTTP'
               end

  @no_proxy.clear

  if @proxy_uri then
    @proxy_args = [
      @proxy_uri.host,
      @proxy_uri.port,
      unescape(@proxy_uri.user),
      unescape(@proxy_uri.password),
    ]

    @proxy_connection_id = [nil, *@proxy_args].join ':'

    if @proxy_uri.query then
      @no_proxy = CGI.parse(@proxy_uri.query)['no_proxy'].join(',').downcase.split(',').map { |x| x.strip }.reject { |x| x.empty? }
    end
  end

  reconnect
  reconnect_ssl
end

#proxy_bypass?(host, port) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true when proxy should by bypassed for host.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 871

def proxy_bypass? host, port
  host = host.downcase
  host_port = [host, port].join ':'

  @no_proxy.each do |name|
    return true if host[-name.length, name.length] == name or
       host_port[-name.length, name.length] == name
  end

  false
end

#proxy_from_envObject

Creates a Bundler::URI for an HTTP proxy server from ENV variables.

If HTTP_PROXY is set a proxy will be returned.

If HTTP_PROXY_USER or HTTP_PROXY_PASS are set the Bundler::URI is given the indicated user and password unless HTTP_PROXY contains either of these in the Bundler::URI.

The NO_PROXY ENV variable can be used to specify hosts which shouldn't be reached via proxy; if set it should be a comma separated list of hostname suffixes, optionally with :port appended, for example example.com,some.host:8080. When set to * no proxy will be returned.

For Windows users, lowercase ENV variables are preferred over uppercase ENV variables.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 844

def proxy_from_env
  env_proxy = ENV['http_proxy'] || ENV['HTTP_PROXY']

  return nil if env_proxy.nil? or env_proxy.empty?

  uri = Bundler::URI normalize_uri env_proxy

  env_no_proxy = ENV['no_proxy'] || ENV['NO_PROXY']

  # '*' is special case for always bypass
  return nil if env_no_proxy == '*'

  if env_no_proxy then
    uri.query = "no_proxy=#{escape(env_no_proxy)}"
  end

  unless uri.user or uri.password then
    uri.user     = escape ENV['http_proxy_user'] || ENV['HTTP_PROXY_USER']
    uri.password = escape ENV['http_proxy_pass'] || ENV['HTTP_PROXY_PASS']
  end

  uri
end

#reconnectObject

Forces reconnection of HTTP connections.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 886

def reconnect
  @generation += 1
end

#reconnect_sslObject

Forces reconnection of SSL connections.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 893

def reconnect_ssl
  @ssl_generation += 1
end

#request(uri, req = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

Makes a request on uri. If req is nil a Net::HTTP::Get is performed against uri.

If a block is passed #request behaves like Net::HTTP#request (the body of the response will not have been read).

req must be a Net::HTTPGenericRequest subclass (see Net::HTTP for a list).

If there is an error and the request is idempotent according to RFC 2616 it will be retried automatically.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 928

def request uri, req = nil, &block
  retried      = false
  bad_response = false

  uri      = Bundler::URI uri
  req      = request_setup req || uri
  response = nil

  connection_for uri do |connection|
    http = connection.http

    begin
      connection.requests += 1

      response = http.request req, &block

      if req.connection_close? or
         (response.http_version <= '1.0' and
          not response.connection_keep_alive?) or
         response.connection_close? then
        finish connection
      end
    rescue Net::HTTPBadResponse => e
      message = error_message connection

      finish connection

      raise Error, "too many bad responses #{message}" if
      bad_response or not can_retry? req

      bad_response = true
      retry
    rescue *RETRIED_EXCEPTIONS => e
      request_failed e, req, connection if
        retried or not can_retry? req

      reset connection

      retried = true
      retry
    rescue Errno::EINVAL, Errno::ETIMEDOUT => e # not retried on ruby 2
      request_failed e, req, connection if retried or not can_retry? req

      reset connection

      retried = true
      retry
    rescue Exception => e
      finish connection

      raise
    ensure
      connection.last_use = Time.now
    end
  end

  @http_versions["#{uri.host}:#{uri.port}"] ||= response.http_version

  response
end

#request_failed(exception, req, connection) ⇒ Object

Raises an Error for exception which resulted from attempting the request req on the connection.

Finishes the connection.

Raises:


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 995

def request_failed exception, req, connection # :nodoc:
  due_to = "(due to #{exception.message} - #{exception.class})"
  message = "too many connection resets #{due_to} #{error_message connection}"

  finish connection

  raise Error, message, exception.backtrace
end

#request_setup(req_or_uri) ⇒ Object

Creates a GET request if req_or_uri is a Bundler::URI and adds headers to the request.

Returns the request.


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1010

def request_setup req_or_uri # :nodoc:
  req = if Bundler::URI === req_or_uri then
          Net::HTTP::Get.new req_or_uri.request_uri
        else
          req_or_uri
        end

  @headers.each do |pair|
    req.add_field(*pair)
  end

  @override_headers.each do |name, value|
    req[name] = value
  end

  unless req['Connection'] then
    req.add_field 'Connection', 'keep-alive'
    req.add_field 'Keep-Alive', @keep_alive
  end

  req
end

#reset(connection) ⇒ Object

Finishes then restarts the Net::HTTP connection


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 900

def reset connection
  http = connection.http

  finish connection

  start http
rescue Errno::ECONNREFUSED
  e = Error.new "connection refused: #{http.address}:#{http.port}"
  e.set_backtrace [email protected]
  raise e
rescue Errno::EHOSTDOWN
  e = Error.new "host down: #{http.address}:#{http.port}"
  e.set_backtrace [email protected]
  raise e
end

#shutdownObject

Shuts down all connections

NOTE: Calling shutdown for can be dangerous!

If any thread is still using a connection it may cause an error! Call #shutdown when you are completely done making requests!


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1041

def shutdown
  @pool.shutdown { |http| http.finish }
end

#ssl(connection) ⇒ Object

Enables SSL on connection


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 1048

def ssl connection
  connection.use_ssl = true

  connection.ciphers     = @ciphers     if @ciphers
  connection.ssl_timeout = @ssl_timeout if @ssl_timeout
  connection.ssl_version = @ssl_version if @ssl_version
  connection.min_version = @min_version if @min_version
  connection.max_version = @max_version if @max_version

  connection.verify_depth = @verify_depth
  connection.verify_mode  = @verify_mode

  if OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER == OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE and
     not Object.const_defined?(:I_KNOW_THAT_OPENSSL_VERIFY_PEER_EQUALS_VERIFY_NONE_IS_WRONG) then
    warn <<-WARNING
                           !!!SECURITY WARNING!!!

The SSL HTTP connection to:

#{connection.address}:#{connection.port}

                         !!!MAY NOT BE VERIFIED!!!

On your platform your OpenSSL implementation is broken.

There is no difference between the values of VERIFY_NONE and VERIFY_PEER.

This means that attempting to verify the security of SSL connections may not
work.  This exposes you to man-in-the-middle exploits, snooping on the
contents of your connection and other dangers to the security of your data.

To disable this warning define the following constant at top-level in your
application:

I_KNOW_THAT_OPENSSL_VERIFY_PEER_EQUALS_VERIFY_NONE_IS_WRONG = nil

    WARNING
  end

  connection.ca_file = @ca_file if @ca_file
  connection.ca_path = @ca_path if @ca_path

  if @ca_file or @ca_path then
    connection.verify_mode = OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER
    connection.verify_callback = @verify_callback if @verify_callback
  end

  if @certificate and @private_key then
    connection.cert = @certificate
    connection.key  = @private_key
  end

  connection.cert_store = if @cert_store then
                            @cert_store
                          else
                            store = OpenSSL::X509::Store.new
                            store.set_default_paths
                            store
                          end
end

#start(http) ⇒ Object

Starts the Net::HTTP connection


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 715

def start http
  http.set_debug_output @debug_output if @debug_output
  http.open_timeout = @open_timeout if @open_timeout

  http.start

  socket = http.instance_variable_get :@socket

  if socket then # for fakeweb
    @socket_options.each do |option|
      socket.io.setsockopt(*option)
    end
  end
end

#unescape(str) ⇒ Object

Bundler::URI::unescape wrapper


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# File 'lib/bundler/vendor/net-http-persistent/lib/net/http/persistent.rb', line 695

def unescape str
  CGI.unescape str if str
end