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Bourne extends mocha to allow detailed tracking and querying of stub and mock invocations. It allows test spies using the have_received rspec matcher and assert_received for Test::Unit. Bourne was extracted from jferris-mocha, a fork of mocha that adds test spies.

Test Spies

Test spies are a form of test double that preserves the normal four-phase unit test order and allows separation of stubbing and verification.

Using a test spy is like using a mocked expectation except that there are two steps:

  1. Stub out a method for which you want to verify invocations
  2. Use an assertion or matcher to verify that the stub was invoked correctly



mock.should have_received(:to_s)
Radio.should have_received(:new).with(1041)
radio.should have_received(:volume).with(11).twice
radio.should have_received(:off).never

You also want to configure RSpec to use mocha for mocking:

RSpec.configure do |config|
  config.mock_with :mocha


assert_received(mock, :to_s)
assert_received(Radio, :new) {|expect| expect.with(1041) }
assert_received(radio, :volume) {|expect| expect.with(11).twice }
assert_received(radio, :off) {|expect| expect.never }

See Mocha::API for more information.


gem install bourne

More Information


Bourne was written by Joe Ferris. Mocha was written by James Mead. Several of the test examples and helpers used in the Bourne test suite were copied directly from Mocha.

Thanks to thoughtbot for inspiration, ideas, and funding. Thanks to James for writing mocha.


Thank you to all the contributors!

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Bourne is Copyright © 2010-2013 Joe Ferris and thoughtbot. It is free software, and may be redistributed under the terms specified in the LICENSE file.