Class: ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQLAdapter

Overview

The PostgreSQL adapter works with the native C (bitbucket.org/ged/ruby-pg) driver.

Options:

  • :host - Defaults to a Unix-domain socket in /tmp. On machines without Unix-domain sockets, the default is to connect to localhost.

  • :port - Defaults to 5432.

  • :username - Defaults to be the same as the operating system name of the user running the application.

  • :password - Password to be used if the server demands password authentication.

  • :database - Defaults to be the same as the user name.

  • :schema_search_path - An optional schema search path for the connection given as a string of comma-separated schema names. This is backward-compatible with the :schema_order option.

  • :encoding - An optional client encoding that is used in a SET client_encoding TO <encoding> call on the connection.

  • :min_messages - An optional client min messages that is used in a SET client_min_messages TO <min_messages> call on the connection.

  • :variables - An optional hash of additional parameters that will be used in SET SESSION key = val calls on the connection.

  • :insert_returning - An optional boolean to control the use of RETURNING for INSERT statements defaults to true.

Any further options are used as connection parameters to libpq. See www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/libpq-connect.html for the list of parameters.

In addition, default connection parameters of libpq can be set per environment variables. See www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/libpq-envars.html .

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: StatementPool

Constant Summary collapse

ADAPTER_NAME =
'PostgreSQL'.freeze
NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES =
{
  primary_key: "serial primary key",
  string:      { name: "character varying" },
  text:        { name: "text" },
  integer:     { name: "integer" },
  float:       { name: "float" },
  decimal:     { name: "decimal" },
  datetime:    { name: "timestamp" },
  time:        { name: "time" },
  date:        { name: "date" },
  daterange:   { name: "daterange" },
  numrange:    { name: "numrange" },
  tsrange:     { name: "tsrange" },
  tstzrange:   { name: "tstzrange" },
  int4range:   { name: "int4range" },
  int8range:   { name: "int8range" },
  binary:      { name: "bytea" },
  boolean:     { name: "boolean" },
  xml:         { name: "xml" },
  tsvector:    { name: "tsvector" },
  hstore:      { name: "hstore" },
  inet:        { name: "inet" },
  cidr:        { name: "cidr" },
  macaddr:     { name: "macaddr" },
  uuid:        { name: "uuid" },
  json:        { name: "json" },
  jsonb:       { name: "jsonb" },
  ltree:       { name: "ltree" },
  citext:      { name: "citext" },
  point:       { name: "point" },
  line:        { name: "line" },
  lseg:        { name: "lseg" },
  box:         { name: "box" },
  path:        { name: "path" },
  polygon:     { name: "polygon" },
  circle:      { name: "circle" },
  bit:         { name: "bit" },
  bit_varying: { name: "bit varying" },
  money:       { name: "money" },
}
OID =

:nodoc:

PostgreSQL::OID
OPERATION_ALIASES =

:nodoc:

{ # :nodoc:
  "maximum" => "max",
  "minimum" => "min",
  "average" => "avg",
}

Constants included from ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::DatabaseStatements

ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::DatabaseStatements::BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID, ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::DatabaseStatements::MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID

Constants inherited from AbstractAdapter

AbstractAdapter::SIMPLE_INT

Constants included from ActiveSupport::Callbacks

ActiveSupport::Callbacks::CALLBACK_FILTER_TYPES

Instance Attribute Summary

Attributes inherited from AbstractAdapter

#logger, #owner, #pool, #prepared_statements, #schema_cache, #visitor

Attributes included from QueryCache

#query_cache, #query_cache_enabled

Attributes included from DatabaseStatements

#transaction_manager

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::ColumnDumper

#column_spec_for_primary_key, #migration_keys, #prepare_column_options

Methods included from ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::DatabaseStatements

#begin_db_transaction, #begin_isolated_db_transaction, #commit_db_transaction, #exec_delete, #exec_insert, #exec_query, #exec_rollback_db_transaction, #execute, #explain, #query, #result_as_array, #select_rows, #select_value, #select_values, #sql_for_insert

Methods included from ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::SchemaStatements

#add_column, #add_index, #change_column, #change_column_comment, #change_column_default, #change_column_null, #change_table_comment, #client_min_messages, #client_min_messages=, #collation, #columns, #columns_for_distinct, #create_database, #create_schema, #ctype, #current_database, #current_schema, #data_source_exists?, #data_sources, #default_sequence_name, #drop_database, #drop_schema, #drop_table, #encoding, #extract_foreign_key_action, #fetch_type_metadata, #foreign_keys, #index_name_exists?, #index_name_length, #indexes, #new_column, #pk_and_sequence_for, #primary_keys, #recreate_database, #remove_index, #rename_column, #rename_index, #rename_table, #reset_pk_sequence!, #schema_exists?, #schema_names, #schema_search_path, #schema_search_path=, #serial_sequence, #set_pk_sequence!, #table_comment, #table_exists?, #table_options, #tables, #type_to_sql, #view_exists?, #views

Methods included from ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::ReferentialIntegrity

#disable_referential_integrity, #supports_disable_referential_integrity?

Methods included from ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQL::Quoting

#escape_bytea, #lookup_cast_type_from_column, #quote_column_name, #quote_default_expression, #quote_schema_name, #quote_string, #quote_table_name, #quote_table_name_for_assignment, #quoted_date, #unescape_bytea

Methods inherited from AbstractAdapter

#adapter_name, #case_insensitive_comparison, #case_sensitive_comparison, #close, #collector, #combine_bind_parameters, #disable_referential_integrity, #expire, #lease, #new_column, #prefetch_primary_key?, #raw_connection, #requires_reloading?, #steal!, #supports_bulk_alter?, #supports_comments_in_create?, #supports_multi_insert?, type_cast_config_to_boolean, type_cast_config_to_integer, #type_map, #unprepared_statement, #verify!

Methods included from Savepoints

#create_savepoint, #current_savepoint_name, #exec_rollback_to_savepoint, #release_savepoint

Methods included from ColumnDumper

#column_spec, #column_spec_for_primary_key, #migration_keys, #prepare_column_options

Methods included from QueryCache

#cache, #clear_query_cache, dirties_query_cache, #disable_query_cache!, #enable_query_cache!, included, #select_all, #uncached

Methods included from DatabaseLimits

#allowed_index_name_length, #column_name_length, #columns_per_multicolumn_index, #columns_per_table, #in_clause_length, #index_name_length, #indexes_per_table, #joins_per_query, #sql_query_length, #table_name_length

Methods included from Quoting

#fetch_type_metadata, #lookup_cast_type_from_column, #prepare_binds_for_database, #quote, #quote_column_name, #quote_default_expression, #quote_string, #quote_table_name, #quote_table_name_for_assignment, #quoted_date, #quoted_false, #quoted_time, #quoted_true, #type_cast, #type_cast_from_column, #unquoted_false, #unquoted_true

Methods included from DatabaseStatements

#add_transaction_record, #begin_db_transaction, #begin_isolated_db_transaction, #cacheable_query, #commit_db_transaction, #default_sequence_name, #delete, #empty_insert_statement_value, #exec_delete, #exec_insert, #exec_query, #exec_rollback_db_transaction, #exec_update, #execute, #insert, #insert_fixture, #join_to_update, #reset_sequence!, #reset_transaction, #rollback_db_transaction, #rollback_to_savepoint, #sanitize_limit, #select_all, #select_one, #select_rows, #select_value, #select_values, #to_sql, #transaction, #transaction_isolation_levels, #transaction_open?, #transaction_state, #update

Methods included from SchemaStatements

#add_column, #add_foreign_key, #add_index, #add_index_options, #add_reference, #add_timestamps, #assume_migrated_upto_version, #change_column, #change_column_comment, #change_column_default, #change_column_null, #change_table, #change_table_comment, #column_exists?, #columns, #columns_for_distinct, #create_join_table, #create_table, #data_source_exists?, #data_sources, #drop_join_table, #drop_table, #dump_schema_information, #foreign_key_column_for, #foreign_key_exists?, #foreign_key_for, #foreign_key_for!, #foreign_key_options, #foreign_keys, #index_exists?, #index_name, #index_name_exists?, #initialize_internal_metadata_table, #initialize_schema_migrations_table, #insert_versions_sql, #internal_string_options_for_primary_key, #options_include_default?, #primary_key, #remove_column, #remove_columns, #remove_foreign_key, #remove_index, #remove_reference, #remove_timestamps, #rename_column, #rename_index, #rename_table, #table_alias_for, #table_comment, #table_exists?, #table_options, #tables, #type_to_sql, #view_exists?, #views

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Callbacks

#run_callbacks

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Concern

#append_features, #class_methods, extended, #included

Constructor Details

#initialize(connection, logger, connection_parameters, config) ⇒ PostgreSQLAdapter

Initializes and connects a PostgreSQL adapter.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 208

def initialize(connection, logger, connection_parameters, config)
  super(connection, logger, config)

  @connection_parameters = connection_parameters

  # @local_tz is initialized as nil to avoid warnings when connect tries to use it
  @local_tz = nil
  @table_alias_length = nil

  connect
  add_pg_encoders
  @statements = StatementPool.new @connection,
                                  self.class.type_cast_config_to_integer(config[:statement_limit])

  if postgresql_version < 90100
    raise "Your version of PostgreSQL (#{postgresql_version}) is too old. Active Record supports PostgreSQL >= 9.1."
  end

  add_pg_decoders

  @type_map = Type::HashLookupTypeMap.new
  initialize_type_map(type_map)
  @local_tz = execute('SHOW TIME ZONE', 'SCHEMA').first["TimeZone"]
  @use_insert_returning = @config.key?(:insert_returning) ? self.class.type_cast_config_to_boolean(@config[:insert_returning]) : true
end

Instance Method Details

#active?Boolean

Is this connection alive and ready for queries?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 244

def active?
  @connection.query 'SELECT 1'
  true
rescue PGError
  false
end

#arel_visitorObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 125

def arel_visitor # :nodoc:
  Arel::Visitors::PostgreSQL.new(self)
end

#clear_cache!Object

Clears the prepared statements cache.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 235

def clear_cache!
  @statements.clear
end

#column_name_for_operation(operation, node) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 388

def column_name_for_operation(operation, node) # :nodoc:
  OPERATION_ALIASES.fetch(operation) { operation.downcase }
end

#disable_extension(name) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 338

def disable_extension(name)
  exec_query("DROP EXTENSION IF EXISTS \"#{name}\" CASCADE").tap {
    reload_type_map
  }
end

#disconnect!Object

Disconnects from the database if already connected. Otherwise, this method does nothing.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 270

def disconnect!
  super
  @connection.close rescue nil
end

#enable_extension(name) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 332

def enable_extension(name)
  exec_query("CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS \"#{name}\"").tap {
    reload_type_map
  }
end

#extension_enabled?(name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 344

def extension_enabled?(name)
  if supports_extensions?
    res = exec_query "SELECT EXISTS(SELECT * FROM pg_available_extensions WHERE name = '#{name}' AND installed_version IS NOT NULL) as enabled",
      'SCHEMA'
    res.cast_values.first
  end
end

#extensionsObject


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 352

def extensions
  if supports_extensions?
    exec_query("SELECT extname from pg_extension", "SCHEMA").cast_values
  else
    super
  end
end

#get_advisory_lock(lock_id) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 318

def get_advisory_lock(lock_id) # :nodoc:
  unless lock_id.is_a?(Integer) && lock_id.bit_length <= 63
    raise(ArgumentError, "Postgres requires advisory lock ids to be a signed 64 bit integer")
  end
  select_value("SELECT pg_try_advisory_lock(#{lock_id});")
end

#index_algorithmsObject


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 175

def index_algorithms
  { concurrently: 'CONCURRENTLY' }
end

#lookup_cast_type(sql_type) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 383

def lookup_cast_type(sql_type) # :nodoc:
  oid = execute("SELECT #{quote(sql_type)}::regtype::oid", "SCHEMA").first['oid'].to_i
  super(oid)
end

#native_database_typesObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 275

def native_database_types #:nodoc:
  NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES
end

#postgresql_versionObject

Returns the version of the connected PostgreSQL server.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 399

def postgresql_version
  @connection.server_version
end

#reconnect!Object

Close then reopen the connection.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 252

def reconnect!
  super
  @connection.reset
  configure_connection
end

#release_advisory_lock(lock_id) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 325

def release_advisory_lock(lock_id) # :nodoc:
  unless lock_id.is_a?(Integer) && lock_id.bit_length <= 63
    raise(ArgumentError, "Postgres requires advisory lock ids to be a signed 64 bit integer")
  end
  select_value("SELECT pg_advisory_unlock(#{lock_id})")
end

#reset!Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 258

def reset!
  clear_cache!
  reset_transaction
  unless @connection.transaction_status == ::PG::PQTRANS_IDLE
    @connection.query 'ROLLBACK'
  end
  @connection.query 'DISCARD ALL'
  configure_connection
end

#schema_creationObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 121

def schema_creation # :nodoc:
  PostgreSQL::SchemaCreation.new self
end

#session_auth=(user) ⇒ Object

Set the authorized user for this session


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 366

def session_auth=(user)
  clear_cache!
  exec_query "SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION #{user}"
end

#set_standard_conforming_stringsObject


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 289

def set_standard_conforming_strings
  execute('SET standard_conforming_strings = on', 'SCHEMA')
end

#supports_advisory_locks?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 297

def supports_advisory_locks?
  true
end

#supports_comments?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 167

def supports_comments?
  true
end

#supports_datetime_with_precision?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 159

def supports_datetime_with_precision?
  true
end

#supports_ddl_transactions?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 293

def supports_ddl_transactions?
  true
end

#supports_explain?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 301

def supports_explain?
  true
end

#supports_expression_index?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 143

def supports_expression_index?
  true
end

#supports_extensions?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 305

def supports_extensions?
  true
end

#supports_foreign_keys?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 151

def supports_foreign_keys?
  true
end

#supports_index_sort_order?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 135

def supports_index_sort_order?
  true
end

#supports_json?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 163

def supports_json?
  postgresql_version >= 90200
end

#supports_materialized_views?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 314

def supports_materialized_views?
  postgresql_version >= 90300
end

#supports_migrations?Boolean

Returns true, since this connection adapter supports migrations.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 280

def supports_migrations?
  true
end

#supports_partial_index?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 139

def supports_partial_index?
  true
end

#supports_primary_key?Boolean

Does PostgreSQL support finding primary key on non-Active Record tables?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 285

def supports_primary_key? #:nodoc:
  true
end

#supports_ranges?Boolean

Range datatypes weren't introduced until PostgreSQL 9.2

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 310

def supports_ranges?
  postgresql_version >= 90200
end

#supports_savepoints?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 171

def supports_savepoints?
  true
end

#supports_statement_cache?Boolean

Returns true, since this connection adapter supports prepared statement caching.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 131

def supports_statement_cache?
  true
end

#supports_transaction_isolation?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 147

def supports_transaction_isolation?
  true
end

#supports_views?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 155

def supports_views?
  true
end

#table_alias_lengthObject

Returns the configured supported identifier length supported by PostgreSQL


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 361

def table_alias_length
  @table_alias_length ||= query('SHOW max_identifier_length', 'SCHEMA')[0][0].to_i
end

#truncate(table_name, name = nil) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 239

def truncate(table_name, name = nil)
  exec_query "TRUNCATE TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)}", name, []
end

#update_table_definition(table_name, base) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 379

def update_table_definition(table_name, base) #:nodoc:
  PostgreSQL::Table.new(table_name, base)
end

#use_insert_returning?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 371

def use_insert_returning?
  @use_insert_returning
end

#valid_type?(type) ⇒ Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 375

def valid_type?(type)
  !native_database_types[type].nil?
end