Module: Geocoder::Calculations

Extended by:
Calculations
Included in:
Calculations
Defined in:
lib/geocoder/calculations.rb

Constant Summary

COMPASS_POINTS =

Compass point names, listed clockwise starting at North.

If you want bearings named using more, fewer, or different points override Geocoder::Calculations.COMPASS_POINTS with your own array.

%w[N NE E SE S SW W NW]
EARTH_RADIUS =

Radius of the Earth, in kilometers. Value taken from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_radius

6371.0
KM_IN_MI =

Conversion factor: multiply by kilometers to get miles.

0.621371192
KM_IN_NM =

Conversion factor: multiply by nautical miles to get miles.

0.539957
NAN =

Not a number constant

defined?(::Float::NAN) ? ::Float::NAN : 0 / 0.0

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Instance Method Details

- (Object) bearing_between(point1, point2, options = {})

Bearing between two points on Earth. Returns a number of degrees from due north (clockwise).

See Geocoder::Calculations.distance_between for ways of specifying the points. Also accepts an options hash:

  • :method - :linear or :spherical; the spherical method is “correct” in that it returns the shortest path (one along a great circle) but the linear method is less confusing (returns due east or west when given two points with the same latitude). Use Geocoder.configure(:distances => …) to configure calculation method.

Based on: www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/latlong.html



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 115

def bearing_between(point1, point2, options = {})

  # set default options
  options[:method] ||= Geocoder.config.distances
  options[:method] = :linear unless options[:method] == :spherical

  # convert to coordinate arrays
  point1 = extract_coordinates(point1)
  point2 = extract_coordinates(point2)

  # convert degrees to radians
  point1 = to_radians(point1)
  point2 = to_radians(point2)

  # compute deltas
  dlat = point2[0] - point1[0]
  dlon = point2[1] - point1[1]

  case options[:method]
  when :linear
    y = dlon
    x = dlat

  when :spherical
    y = Math.sin(dlon) * Math.cos(point2[0])
    x = Math.cos(point1[0]) * Math.sin(point2[0]) -
        Math.sin(point1[0]) * Math.cos(point2[0]) * Math.cos(dlon)
  end

  bearing = Math.atan2(x,y)
  # Answer is in radians counterclockwise from due east.
  # Convert to degrees clockwise from due north:
  (90 - to_degrees(bearing) + 360) % 360
end

- (Object) bounding_box(point, radius, options = {})

Returns coordinates of the southwest and northeast corners of a box with the given point at its center. The radius is the shortest distance from the center point to any side of the box (the length of each side is twice the radius).

This is useful for finding corner points of a map viewport, or for roughly limiting the possible solutions in a geo-spatial search (ActiveRecord queries use it thusly).

See Geocoder::Calculations.distance_between for ways of specifying the point. Also accepts an options hash:

  • :units - :mi or :km. Use Geocoder.configure(:units => …) to configure default units.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 207

def bounding_box(point, radius, options = {})
  lat,lon = extract_coordinates(point)
  radius  = radius.to_f
  units   = options[:units] || Geocoder.config.units
  [
    lat - (radius / latitude_degree_distance(units)),
    lon - (radius / longitude_degree_distance(lat, units)),
    lat + (radius / latitude_degree_distance(units)),
    lon + (radius / longitude_degree_distance(lat, units))
  ]
end

- (Object) compass_point(bearing, points = COMPASS_POINTS)

Translate a bearing (float) into a compass direction (string, eg “North”).



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 153

def compass_point(bearing, points = COMPASS_POINTS)
  seg_size = 360 / points.size
  points[((bearing + (seg_size / 2)) % 360) / seg_size]
end

- (Boolean) coordinates_present?(*args)

Returns true if all given arguments are valid latitude/longitude values.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 35

def coordinates_present?(*args)
  args.each do |a|
    # note that Float::NAN != Float::NAN
    # still, this could probably be improved:
    return false if (!a.is_a?(Numeric) or a.to_s == "NaN")
  end
  true
end

- (Object) distance_between(point1, point2, options = {})

Distance between two points on Earth (Haversine formula). Takes two points and an options hash. The points are given in the same way that points are given to all Geocoder methods that accept points as arguments. They can be:

  • an array of coordinates ([lat,lon])

  • a geocodable address (string)

  • a geocoded object (one which implements a to_coordinates method which returns a [lat,lon] array

The options hash supports:

  • :units - :mi or :km Use Geocoder.configure(:units => …) to configure default units.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 77

def distance_between(point1, point2, options = {})

  # set default options
  options[:units] ||= Geocoder.config.units

  # convert to coordinate arrays
  point1 = extract_coordinates(point1)
  point2 = extract_coordinates(point2)

  # convert degrees to radians
  point1 = to_radians(point1)
  point2 = to_radians(point2)

  # compute deltas
  dlat = point2[0] - point1[0]
  dlon = point2[1] - point1[1]

  a = (Math.sin(dlat / 2))**2 + Math.cos(point1[0]) *
      (Math.sin(dlon / 2))**2 * Math.cos(point2[0])
  c = 2 * Math.atan2( Math.sqrt(a), Math.sqrt(1-a))
  c * earth_radius(options[:units])
end

- (Object) distance_to_radians(distance, units = nil)



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 247

def distance_to_radians(distance, units = nil)
  units ||= Geocoder.config.units
  distance.to_f / earth_radius(units)
end

- (Object) earth_radius(units = nil)

Radius of the Earth in the given units (:mi or :km). Use Geocoder.configure(:units => …) to configure default units.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 282

def earth_radius(units = nil)
  units ||= Geocoder.config.units
  case units
    when :km; EARTH_RADIUS
    when :mi; to_miles(EARTH_RADIUS)
    when :nm; to_nautical_miles(EARTH_RADIUS)
  end
end

- (Object) extract_coordinates(point)

Takes an object which is a [lat,lon] array, a geocodable string, or an object that implements to_coordinates and returns a

lat,lon

array. Note that if a string is passed this may be a slow-

running method and may return nil.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 327

def extract_coordinates(point)
  case point
  when Array
    if point.size == 2
      lat, lon = point
      if !lat.nil? && lat.respond_to?(:to_f) and
        !lon.nil? && lon.respond_to?(:to_f)
      then
        return [ lat.to_f, lon.to_f ]
      end
    end
  when String
    point = Geocoder.coordinates(point) and return point
  else
    if point.respond_to?(:to_coordinates)
      if Array === array = point.to_coordinates
        return extract_coordinates(array)
      end
    end
  end
  [ NAN, NAN ]
end

- (Object) geographic_center(points)

Compute the geographic center (aka geographic midpoint, center of gravity) for an array of geocoded objects and/or [lat,lon] arrays (can be mixed). Any objects missing coordinates are ignored. Follows the procedure documented at www.geomidpoint.com/calculation.html.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 164

def geographic_center(points)

  # convert objects to [lat,lon] arrays and convert degrees to radians
  coords = points.map{ |p| to_radians(extract_coordinates(p)) }

  # convert to Cartesian coordinates
  x = []; y = []; z = []
  coords.each do |p|
    x << Math.cos(p[0]) * Math.cos(p[1])
    y << Math.cos(p[0]) * Math.sin(p[1])
    z << Math.sin(p[0])
  end

  # compute average coordinate values
  xa, ya, za = [x,y,z].map do |c|
    c.inject(0){ |tot,i| tot += i } / c.size.to_f
  end

  # convert back to latitude/longitude
  lon = Math.atan2(ya, xa)
  hyp = Math.sqrt(xa**2 + ya**2)
  lat = Math.atan2(za, hyp)

  # return answer in degrees
  to_degrees [lat, lon]
end

- (Object) km_in_mi

Conversion factor: km to mi.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 294

def km_in_mi
  KM_IN_MI
end

- (Object) km_in_nm

Conversion factor: km to nm.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 301

def km_in_nm
  KM_IN_NM
end

- (Object) latitude_degree_distance(units = nil)

Distance spanned by one degree of latitude in the given units.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 47

def latitude_degree_distance(units = nil)
  units ||= Geocoder.config.units
  2 * Math::PI * earth_radius(units) / 360
end

- (Object) longitude_degree_distance(latitude, units = nil)

Distance spanned by one degree of longitude at the given latitude. This ranges from around 69 miles at the equator to zero at the poles.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 56

def longitude_degree_distance(latitude, units = nil)
  units ||= Geocoder.config.units
  latitude_degree_distance(units) * Math.cos(to_radians(latitude))
end

- (Object) mi_in_km

Conversion factor: mi to km.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 310

def mi_in_km
  1.0 / KM_IN_MI
end

- (Object) nm_in_km

Conversion factor: nm to km.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 317

def nm_in_km
  1.0 / KM_IN_NM
end

- (Object) radians_to_distance(radians, units = nil)



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 252

def radians_to_distance(radians, units = nil)
  units ||= Geocoder.config.units
  radians * earth_radius(units)
end

- (Object) to_degrees(*args)

Convert radians to degrees. If an array (or multiple arguments) is passed, converts each value and returns array.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 238

def to_degrees(*args)
  args = args.first if args.first.is_a?(Array)
  if args.size == 1
    (args.first * 180.0) / Math::PI
  else
    args.map{ |i| to_degrees(i) }
  end
end

- (Object) to_kilometers(mi)

Convert miles to kilometers.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 260

def to_kilometers(mi)
  mi * mi_in_km
end

- (Object) to_miles(km)

Convert kilometers to miles.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 267

def to_miles(km)
  km * km_in_mi
end

- (Object) to_nautical_miles(km)

Convert kilometers to nautical miles.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 274

def to_nautical_miles(km)
  km * km_in_nm
end

- (Object) to_radians(*args)

Convert degrees to radians. If an array (or multiple arguments) is passed, converts each value and returns array.



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# File 'lib/geocoder/calculations.rb', line 224

def to_radians(*args)
  args = args.first if args.first.is_a?(Array)
  if args.size == 1
    args.first * (Math::PI / 180)
  else
    args.map{ |i| to_radians(i) }
  end
end